REVISED: 5/2/09


Experimental Aircraft Assn, Hales Corners WI.

Baby Ace C 1953 = 1-2pOhwM; 65-85hp Continentals; span: 26'5" length: 17'9" load: 375# v: 110/100/34 range: 350 ceiling: 16,000' (data for 65hp). Corben Ace rights and assets were purchased by EAA in 1953, and the Baby Ace plans revised and offered for sale to member home-builders. However, in keeping with the organization's non-profit structure, rights were in turn released in 1956 to Cliff DuCharme in West Bend WI, who further revised and expanded the design as 1p Baby Ace D and 2p Junior Ace E. ALSO SEE Ace, Baby Ace.

Biplane 1960 = 1pOB; 85hp Continental C-85-8; span: 20'0" length: 17'0" load: 440# v: 125/110/50 range: 350 ceiling: 11,500'. T Seely, J D Stewart. Began as a student project at St Rita High School in Chicago under the direction of Robert Blacker; ff: 6/10/60. After modifications of the design, EAA acquired the project for further modifications, and offered plans to its members, resulting in some 1,200 sets being sold by mid-1963.


Engineers Aircraft Corp, Stamford CT.

Model 1 1930 = 2pOhwM; 90hp Wright-Gypsy; span: 30'0". Swept-back, folding, parasol wing; side-by-side cockpit. Touted as "able to fit inside an 11'x20' garage." $3,800-5,000; POP: 1 [39V].


Eagle Aircraft, Boise ID.

  Eagle (Eagle Co via Bill Lines)

1979 = 1pOB agplane; 300hp Page-Jacobs R-755 (alternates 240hp R-755B1 and 400hp Continental W-670); span: 55'0" length: 26'0" load: 2662# v: 101/x/55. Wood wings and steel tube fuselage, all Dacron-covered; spoilers on top surface of lower wings for more precise control at spray speed (65mph). POP: 1 prototype; commercial production, projected by Bellanca Corp, unknown.


Eaglecraft Co, Ft Worth TX.

1941 = 2pChwM. Tandem-seat trainer.

Eagle's Perch

Eagle's Perch Inc, Carrollton VA.

  Eagle's Perch [N501JH] (Eagle's Perch)

Nolan 51-HJ 1998 = 1pOH; two Rotax 503; rotor: 14'6" length: 15'3" load: 631 v: 70/60/0 ceiling: 10,000'. Co-axial pendulum helicopter with two counter-rotating rotors of fixed pitch, no tail rotor, simplified controls. Claimed to fly on one engine. Self-contained ballistic parachute. Kit (less enclosure, engines, and electronics): $17,995. Claimed building time of 250 hours.

E & P

Elson & Pruitt, Flint MI.

Special 1972 = 1pCmwM; 65hp Continental A-65-8; span: 23'0" length: 17'11" load: 208# v: 140/120/55 range: 320.


1928: (Harry W) Earl Aviation Corp, Portland OR; 1929: Los Angeles CA.

  Earl Populaire [65M] (company ad)
  Earl Populaire as movie "SE5a" (Frank Rezich coll)

Populair 1929 = 1pOB; 95hp Cirrus Mk III; span: (upper) 30'0" (lower) 24'0" length: 21'0" load: 550# v: 120/95/35 range: 500; ff: 8/4/29 (p: E C Genereaux). $3,795; [NR/X65M] c/n 1. Appeared modified with 125hp Menasco as an SE5a fighter in the 1936 film, "Suzy."

Populair 1-A 1930 = 1pOB; 95hp Cirrus. Stanley H Evans. POP: 1 [X138W] c/n 103. Reported stll extant but not flying (late 2007) at Santa Rosa CA.

East Coast

East Coast Aeronautics div, Barium Steel Co, no location.

c.1944 = Contract manufacture of two Lockheed XF-80Cs using magnesium alloy as experiments in weight reduction. No data.


Clifford East & William Olsen, Muni Airport, Denver CO.

DFA 1933 - 2pOM; 45hp Szekely; no specs or data found. POP: 1 [12572] c/n 1; reg canceled 11/1/34 and CAA was informed on 9/17/35 that the aircraft would not be completed.


SEE ALSO Hild-Marshonet

1915: Eastern Aeroplane Co (fdrs: Frederick C Hild & Edward F Marshonet), Sheepshead Bay, NY. 1916: Reorganized as United Eastern Aeroplane Corp, Hempstead, Long Island. 1919: Ended operations.

  Eastern Tractor (Museum of Flight)

Tractor Biplane 1916 = 2pOB; 120hp Maximotor. Edward Marshonet. POP: at least 1. Hild was one of the founders of the Aircraft Manufacturers Association in 1917.

Sportplane 1919 = 1pOB; 20hp 2-cyl Hall-Scott; span: 24'0" length: 19'0" load: 250# v: 65/x/35. Plans to build a 2p version with 40hp Spainhour are reported, but no record of production was found.

Eastern Div, General Motors SEE General Motors


1928: (P R) Beasley-(James) Eastman Laboratories Inc, 4853 Rivard St, Detroit MI. 1929: Eastman Aircraft Corp (Beasley, Eastman, Edward S Evans, Carl B Squier), 287 Minnie St, Detroit. 1930: Acquired by Detroit Aircraft.

  Eastman E-2 [NC463M] (Frank Rezich coll)

E-2 Sea Rover 1928 (ATC 288) = 2-3pOswBFb; 185hp Curtiss R-600 Challenger; span: 36'0" length: 26'3" load: 980# v: 110/90/50 range: 360. Jim Eastman, Tom Towle. Metal-clad wooden hull. $8,750, $6,750 in 1931; POP: 18 [NC460M/473M, et al]. Prototype, aka Beasley-Eastman, had 90hp Anzani, later 120hp Warner Scarab [X3643].

E-2-A, E-2-D Sea Pirate 1930 (ATC 338) = 3pOswBAm; 185hp Curtiss Challenger; span: 36'0" length: 26'3" load: 755# v: 102/85/50 range: 360. Amphibious version of E-2. $10,985, $8,750 in 1931; POP: 3 E-2-A [NC474M/476M, X592M], 2 converted from E-2 [NC466M, NC470M]; 1 E-2-D converted from E-2 with 225hp Packard diesel [NC464M].


Eaton Bros, Los Angeles CA.

c.1912 = OB; Macomber and other motors. Warren S Eaton. One of several aircraft built for others, generally Wright types.


Leonard Eaves, Leroy Huff, Lloyd Pearson, Oklahoma City OK.

Catfish c.1986 = 2pClwM; 155hp GMC V-6; span: 24'0" length: 18'6".

Skeeter, Huffaire, Sugar Babe 1968 = 2pClwM; 125hp Lycoming O-290G; span: 22'9" length: 26'2" v: 145/100/x range: 600. Three young men each built one example of this much simplified design with a fuselage consisting of a near-two-dimensional surface only. POP: 3 [N1111J, N1111V, N1111W].

Sting Ray c.1986 = 2pCmwM; 102hp Corvair; span: 18'3".


c.1917: (Clebourne) Eberhardt Steel Products Co, Buffalo NY. 1926: Eberhart Aeroplane & Motor Co.

  Eberhardt XF2G-1 [A-7944] (P M Bowers coll)

FG, F2G Comanche 1927 = Prototype fighter for USN evaluation. 1pOB and OBF; 425hp P&W R-1340C; span: 28'9" length: 27'3" load: 793# v: 155 ceiling: 18,700 (data for FG). POP: 1 [A7944], tested first on wheels as XFG-1, then on a single float and with 32'0" wings as XF2G-1; destroyed during testing.

Iroquois 1927 = 3pOB; 90hp Curtiss OX-5. POP: 1 Waco look-alike, destroyed in a crash in late 1927 [47].

  Eberhardt SE5a restoration [22-325] (USAF Museum)

S.E.5a 1922 = 1pOB; 180hp Wright-Hisso E; span: 26'9" length: 20'11" v: 122/90/x range: 225# ceiling: 17,000'. Manufacture under license of 50 British-design WW1 fighters for the AAC continued into the mid-1920s.


Gus Eberman, Geneva IL.

  Eberman [885N] (EAA)

1930 = 1pOhwM; 80hp Anzani; span: 31'4" length: 21'5" load: 450# v: 95/80/50. Parasol wing. [885N].

Ebrite SEE Zenith


Herman A Ecker, Syracuse NY.

1911 = 1pOswB. A strange, but curiously modern-looking, craft built along conventional lines—quite visionary for those days—and with what appears to be a flying tail, the earliest one we have noticed.

  Ecker Restoration at Garber Facility, NASM

c.1912 = 2pOBFb; modified 50hp Roberts 6 marine engine pusher; span 42'0" length: 26'0" range: 20-30 min flight time. Design based closely on Curtiss OWL. All-wood construction, muslin covering. Foot-operated throttle; harness controlled ailerons. Wheels were built into the hull, making this actually an amphibian, although it is most often referred to as a flying boat. Flown for about three years, then disassembled and stored until 1930, at which time it was reassembled for display at New York State Fair. Acquired and restored 1962 by Smithsonian as a static display.

c.1914 = 1pOBF, a Curtiss-type pusher floatplane about which little is known.


William R Eckley, Mabel MI.

WJ-3 1930 = 2pOM; 60hp Siemens. [10565].


Eclipse Aviation (ceo: Vern Raburn), Albuquerque NM.

E500 2002 = 6pClwM rg; two P&W-Canada PW610F turbofans. No specs found; ff: 8/26/2002.


Ector Aircraft Co, Odessa TX.

Mountaineer c.1980 = Remanufacture of Cessna L-19 with 213hp Continental O-470-11 and 240hp Lycoming O-540-A4 (the latter as Super Mountaineer).


Paul Eddy, Findlay OH.

c.1950 = Biplane version of Ryan PT-22. 1pOB; 165hp Kinner; span: (upper) 25'0" (lower) 21'0" length: 21'0" v: 115/95/45.


Ed Young, Erie CO.

F-2 1963 = 2pCswB; 135hp Lycoming O-290D; span: 23'1" length: 19'5" load: 530# v: 145/130/70 range: 425. [N5566V].


Thomas Alva Edison, Menlo Park NJ.

  Edison 1906 patent

1910 = Although only a paper creation, this helicopter patent (#970,616) is included to illustrate the wave of theoretical interest that swept the scientific community after the Wright's epic flight. It is also interesting that most first impulses, after copying the flapping of bird wings, focused on the helicopter, eventually drifting to the airplane as a problem more easily solved.


John G Edley, Miami FL.

C-90 1932 = 2pOMF; 95hp Cirrus Mk III Hi-Drive pusher [11526] c/n EE-1. A bank failure wiped him out, and the plane was sold for $10.00, quite a bargain even in 1935! Reg cancelled 3/15/36 and the plane dismantled in 1937.


Phil Edmunds, Troy OH.

1953 = 1pClwM; modified 30hp Menasco target drone engine; span: 25'6" load: 214# v: x/70/x. [NC24203].

  Edmunds AOK [N25203]

AOK 19?? = 2pCB; 125hp Lycoming. Pointy-nosed, scaled-down version of a Waco cabin design by Edmunds, an engineer with Waco in the mid-'30s. POP: 1 [N25203].

G-1 Flying Scooter 1952 = 1pClwM; 18hp Menasco target drone engine; span: 25'6" length 17'6". Began as "the world's largest control-line model," redesigned into man-carrying plane. Was abandoned for want of a reliable engine. [N9647H]. Follow-on was the 1953 version above.


1925: EDO Aircraft Corp (fdr: Earl D Osborne), College Point NY. 1930: Refinancing. 1998: Edo Float Corp, Kirkland WA.

c.1925 = OhwMFb. B V Korvin-Kroukovsky. POP: 2 [32, 784], both of which are listed in registers as Aeromarine EO, and first one as a "possible." The extent of Mr K-K's design involvement is not known.

B c.1924 = 4pOhwMFb; 75hp Anzani. [1791]. SEE Aeromarine EO.

Malolo 1, 2, 3 1927 = 4pOhwMFb; 75hp Anzani; span: 45'0" length: 24'8". Cantilever wing. POP: 1, with three modifications and designations, the first being a decrease in dihedral, the second an increase in the rudder and fin areas [598].

OSE - Redesignation from XS2E-1. 1-2pClwM on wheels or with single float that could be fitted with "ferry gear" wheels for cross-country flying; 550hp Ranger V-770-8; span: 37'11" length: 31'2" load: 2090# v: 205/130/x range: 900.

  EDO XOSE-1 and XOSE-2 [Navy League]

XOSE-1 1945 = 1p version; ff: 12/28/45. POP: 8 [75210/75217], of which 2 converted to XOSE-2 [75214/75215] and 2 to XTE-1 [75216/75217].

XOSE-2 1947 = 2p version with enlarged fin; ff: 7/24/47. POP: 2 conversions of XOSE-1 [75214/75215].

OSE-2 - Redesignated from XS2E-1. POP: 4 serially assigned [75625/75628], but production was cancelled.

S2E-1 1946 = Redesignated as OSE and TE.

  EDO XTE-1 [Navy League]

TE 1947 = 2pClwMF; ff: 9/11/47. Trainer conversion of XOSE-1. POP: 2 as XTE-1 [75216/75217].

TE-2 - Redesignated from XS2E-1. POP: 4 serially assigned [75629/75632], but production was cancelled.


Edwards Common Sense Aeroplane Co, Tell City IN.

c.1909 = Unknown type with Kemp I-4 motor (or motors—there is mention of two 7' propellers). There is a distinct possibility of a hydroaeroplane in 1914, a conversion of this one or a specific design.


James Edwards, Los Angeles CA.

Scout 1933 = 2pOB; 90hp Warner Scarab; span: 31'2" length: 22'2". Based loosely on Fleet 2. Destroyed by windstorm in Aug 1935.


1939: (George) Sterling Edwards Aircraft Co, 1055 California St, S San Francisco CA.

  Edwards XMBM-1 Double- and single-fin [NX19956] (William T Larkins)

XMBM-1 1939 = 2pClwM rg; two 100hp Edwards or 50hp Continental A-50-3; span: 38'0" length: 27'6" load: 565# v: 122/108/x range: 400. H O Boyvey. Plywood cantilever wing, side-by-side cabin. Twin tails. c.$5,000; POP: 1 [NX19956].


Edward & Ray Effenheim, Milwaukee WI.

  Effenheim E-1 [12097]

E-1 Special (Hawk) 1931 = 1pOB; 70hp Velie. [R12097] shown in a 1934 register as having a 45hp Effenheim, later destroyed in a crash.

E-2 1947 = 1pOB; 65hp Milwaukee Tank, replaced by 85hp Continental C-85. A much-modified version of Knight Twister [NX5726N].


Norman C Egge, Boston MA.

Hornet 1933 = 1pOB; 65hp LeBlond. [13276], c/n A-100.


Eau Gallic High School, FL.

Gull 1986 = 1p research plane as student project; no data found.


R T Eglin and Roy Moss, Los Angeles CA.

E-1 1925 = 2pOB; 90hp Curtiss OX-5. Roy Moss. No other data.


James P Eich, Alhambra CA.

JE-2 Gyroplane 1977 = 2pAg; 65hp Continental A-65, later 85hp C-85; rotor: 26'0" length: 14'0" load: 400# v: 95/80-60/0 range: 180. POP: 1 [N47143]. Plans marketed to home-builders.


E I Eichenfeldt, Minneapolis MN.

  Eichenfeldt line drawing (1910 Aeronautics)

Biplanes c.1909 = Plural use of the model refers to a bowed wing attached at the tips to a high-wing mainplane covered with sheet aluminum. Unusually streamlined for its day, the fuselage appears as cabinlike, except for open windows. Unknown motor type. 1909 Jane's comments: "Put on the market by H J Nice & Co; price about $1,000. Several are building, but none completed yet. Models have been very successful, and remarkably stable."


Ellis Eichmann, Brownsville TX (assumed).

A, B c.1946 = 1p and 2p flying-wings. No data.

Aerobat I c.1937 = 2pOM flying wing; 50hp Continental; span: 24'0" length: 17'0" v: 95/75/38. [NX17638].

Aerobat "Bat 1" was a tractor-engine aircraft, a tail-dragger with widely-spaced retractable landing gear that appeared to fold outward into the bottom of the wing. Tailwheel extended behind the rudder pivot line. Most of the aircraft is wing, but the forward fuselage containing the engine extended in front of the wing and was aligned below the leading edge of the wing, with the engine centerline below the wing leading edge. The aircraft had a reverse-delta wing planform with the slightly-tapered leading edge of the wing starting just ahead of the framed bubble canopy. The leading edge went out to rounded wingtips. Trailing edge of the wing tapered from the wingtips all the way back to the rudder hinge line at the aft end of the fuselage. There was a single vertical tail with the stabilizer mounted at the top, and small teardrop-shaped tip plates on the tips of the stabilizer. (— Michael Morrow 4/5/07)

Aerobat II, III - No data for follow-up models, which apparently were redesigns and rebuilds of the original, retaining its license. III had a tail-mounted pusher engine [N17638]—Eichmann died in its maiden flight on 7/20/97 when oscillation caused elevator failure and a crash on take-off at Brownsville.


Dewey Eldred, Willoughby OH.

  Eldred Flyer's Dream [NX36282] (Steve McKee)
  Eldred Flyer's Dream 1/72 model (Claudio Luchina)
Flyer's Dream 1946 = 2pClwMF; 125hp ?; span: 30'0" v: 120/100/50; ff: 6/4/46. D Eldred, Sol Fingerhut. A highly-original floatplane with a automobile-like nacelle mounted on top of a W-shaped wing. Floats were mounted under the lowest parts of the wing, with twin tail-booms attached to the rear of the floats. POP: 1 [NX36282].


c.1924: G Elias & Brother, Buffalo NY.

Air Express 1926 = 1pOB; 400hp Liberty 12; span: 42'0" length: 29'2" v: 123/x/50 range: 510. Mail plane with 1200# payload. Likely an improved M-1.

  Elias Airmobile (Frank Rezich coll)

Airmobile 1927 = 2pOB; 400hp Liberty 12, also Curtiss C-6; span: 40'0" (?>40'3") length: 28'0" load: 1290# range: 625. $7,500; POP: 3.

AJE 1927 = 2pOB; 400hp Liberty 12; span: 44'0" load: 2070 v: 125. Possibly [239] c/n 101.

  Elias EC-1 [X3981] (1929 Aero Digest)
  Elias EC-1 Aircoupe (
  Elias EC-1 Airsport (

EC-1 Aircoupe, Airsport 1928 = 2pO-ChwM; 80hp Anzani; span: 28'2" length: 20'11" (?>21'6") load: 518# v: 96/85/30 range: 425. Joseph Cato. Parasol slotted-wing; removable cabin enclosure (open version as Airsport). $3,350. Also available with 100hp Kinner K-5. POP: 1 [X3981], possibly more.

EC-3 Airmobile 1929 = Shown in the plans section of the 1929 Aircraft Yearbook, this was huge, high-wing monoplane with the pilot in an open cockpit behind the wing, and with a cabin for perhaps four to six passengers. Elias has presented many problems for researchers, and this is another of them: (1) the big radial engine shown in the three-view belies its description of a "Liberty;" (2) the model merger of the EC line of small, low-powered sportplanes with the Airmobile biplane is odd; (3) no dimensions are shown, but it seems to be in the general size of the 1927 Airmobile biplane. It was undoubtedly never built.

EM - USMC fighter-Scout. 2pOB and OBF with single pontoon, wing floats; specified as a "Marine Expeditionary aircraft." Jane's 1980 Encyclopedia shows a total production of 13 EMs, but USN registrations account for only 7.

  Elias EM-1 [A-5905] (Aerial Age via Joe Martin)

EM-1 1921 = 300hp Hisso H; span: 39'9" length: 33'9" v: 90 ceiling: 14,500'. POP: 1 [A5905].

  Elias EM-2 on floats [A-5907] (USN via W T Larkins coll)

EM-2 1922 = 400hp Liberty 12; length: 28'6" v: 111/x/44 ceiling: 19,300' POP: 6 [A5906/5911].

  Elias ES-1 (Aviation via Joe Martin)
  Elias ES-1 3-view (Aircraft Year Book)

ES-1 aka Elias-Stupar Twin 1922 (?>1926) = 5pOB; two 80hp LeRhône rotary; span: 34'0" length: 24'0" load: 1032# (?>1631#) v: 90/86/35 range: 400. Max Stupar. Seated five in three cockpits. No outboard interplane struts. Designed and developed as a budget passenger-carrier, with projected operating costs as little as five to eight cents per passenger mile in 1922 dollars (or cents).

EO 1923 = Unknown Liberty-powered type; span: 39'8" length: 32'10". EO designation was likely the factory's.

  Elias M-1 (Aviation via Joe Martin)

M-1 Mailplane 1925 = 1pOB; 400hp Liberty 12; span: 40'0" length: 28'0" load: 1810# v: 126/x/48 range: 450. $7,500.

NBS-3 1924 = Army short-distance night bomber, almost a duplicate of Martin NBS-1. 4pOB; two 425hp Liberty 12A; span: 77'6" length: 48'5" load: 5534# v: 101/96/65 range: 465 ceiling 8,680'. Type was also built by Aeromarine, Curtiss, L-W-F, as well as parent Martin. POP: 1 as XNBS-3 [AS68567].

Sport 1926 = Unknown types. Joseph Cato. POP: 3 different prototypical lightplanes reportedly built, but never commercially produced. Might have been prototypes for EC-1.

TA-1 1921 = Army trainer. 2pOB; 140hp Lawrance R-1; span: 32'8" length: 24'9". POP: 3, one with 170hp ABC Wasp [AS64220/64222]; the last two as McCook Field projects P-178 and P-185.


Donald & Galen Elser-Carlyle Jobes, Lima OH.

Sportplane A-2 1936 = 1pOM; 40hp Ford. POP: 2; [18398] and [NX21297] in 1938 with 40hp Continental.

Ellington SEE Con Ellingston


H E Elliot, Los Angeles CA.

Sport 1929 = 2pOhwM; Anzani 6. [8085] c/n 100. Sold 5/19/35 and LeBlond installed. Impounded by US Customs on 8/16/39 for unspecified reasons, reg cancelled 5/15/40.


Leonard C Elmendorf, Garden City MI.

Special 1969 = 1pOB; 125hp Lycoming O-290-G; span: 20'0" length: 16'0" v: x/131/69 range: 300. [N716L].

Emair, Agronemair

Emair, div of Murrayair Ltd, Harlingen TX.

  Emair MA-2 [N9927M] (Dan Shumaker)

MA-1, -2 Paymaster 1969 = Agricultural applicator. 1pCB; 600hp P&W R-1340-AN1 with three-blade prop; span: (upper) 41'8" (lower) 35'0" length: 28'8" load: 3254# v: 148/117/59. A heavily redesigned and beefed-up version of Boeing-Stearman PT-17; ff: 7/27/69. Hopper load: 3000#. MA-2 was refitted with 900hp Wright R-1820. POP: 25 MA-1 known built by Jan 1976, 24 MA-2 by Feb 1978.


Arizona Airmobile Co, Phoenix AZ.

1911 = 1pOB; two pusher props; motor unknown. Olaf S Emblem. Had a unique V-tail acting as both elevator and rudder, with a single control wheel replacing the usual two- and three-lever systems commonly used in contemporary airplanes, and weighed a third less than a Curtiss machine. Take-off speed said to be only 17mph.


(Harold) Emigh Aircraft Co, Denver CO. 1936: Gregg Aircraft Mfg Co, Pueblo CO. c.1959: Helicopter Research Co, Los Angeles CA.

Airsport 1929 = 2pOHwM; 100hp Kinner K-5; span: 28'1" length: 21'6" v: 105/90/40 range: 425.

  Emigh Commuter Jr [N2823x] (Joe Branzetti via EAA)

Commuter Jr 1960 = 1pOH; 65hp Continental C-65; rotor: 21'0" length: 23'6" load: 300# v: 75/x/0 range: 150 ceiling: 10,500'; ff: 7/15/60 (p: Jim Compton). Plans marketed to home-builders. [N2823x]

Rocket c.1933 = Became Gregg A-75.

  Emigh Trojan A-2 [N8329H] (Dan Shumaker)

Trojan A-2 1946 = 2pO/CM; 85/90hp Continental C-85/C-90; span: 31'10" length: 20'3" v: 130/115/48 range: 550. Wings, with full-length ailerons, were interchangeable. $3,295 with electric starter; POP: 27 (?>58, according to Emigh Jr).


Don Pittman, Sapulpa OK.

  Emmert Special [N3663F] (magazine clip)

Special 1963 = 1pOhwM; 90hp Franklin; span: 24'0" length: 18'6" load: 350# v: 120/105/50 range: 400; ff: 7/8/63. Jim Emmert. [N3663F].

Empire State

1916: Empire State Aircraft Corp, Hempstead Plains NY, on acquisition of elements of Huntington Aircraft Co ( Long Island NY).

  Empire State "Military Tractor" (1917 Flying)

1916 = 2pOB; 90hp Gyro Duplex rotary. Developed from Huntington monoplane. Unknown if any were actually produced,

1918 - Four CO-type (Corps Observation) aircraft were ordered by the Army on 8/28/19 as [63267/63271], S/ns issued but the contract was cancelled before work began.

1919 - 12 "Experimental Steel" aircraft were ordered by the Army on 1/16/18 and assigned s/ns [39043/39054], but were cancelled on 4/3/18.


1929: (E M Smith & Associates) EMSCO Aircraft Corp, Long Beach CA, on acquisition of Zenith Albatross Co; 1929: 890 Cerritos Blvd, Downey CA. 1932: Ended aircraft production. c.1941: Ended operations.

Arctic Tern SEE Rocheville Arctic Tern.

  Emsco B-2 [X849E] (Skyways)

B-2 Challenger 1929 (ATC 2-171) = 8pChwM; three 170hp Curtiss Challenger; span: 57'0" length: 36'0" load: 2338# v: 130/100/50 range: 450. Redone Zenith Albatross. $20,000; POP: 2; 1 in 1930, converted to B-3 [NC823N], and 1 for Emsco Derrick & Equipment Co, converted to B-5 twin during 1930 [X849E].

  Emsco B-3 [NR153W] Classina Madge (Walter Boyne coll)
  Emsco B-3A [NC823N] (K O Eckland coll)

B-3, B-3A 1929 (ATC 400) = 9pChwM; 420hp P&W Wasp C; span: 60'0" length: 40'9" load: 2401# v: 150/122/50 range: 720. Charles Rocheville. $21,500; POP: 6, of which 1 was [NR153W] City of Tacoma (p: Harold Bromley, Harold Gatty) for abortive 1930 Japan-US flights (three other tries were Lockheeds, but this ship, rechristened Classina Madge, did make the crossing successfully on 9/8/31), 1 converted in 1930 from B-2 to single-engine B-3A [NC823N], one to Mexico [XBACO], and 1 to Rumania [NR166W=CVGOI]. First plane [X832H] crashed fatally at the 1929 Nationals when pilot Jack Reid apparently fell asleep at the controls after setting a new endurance record of 38h:40m.

  Emsco B-4 Subjects unidentified [X369H] (Henri Heller coll)

B-4 1930 = 2pOmwM; 95hp ACE (Cirrus Mk III); span: 36'0" length: 21'10" load: 550# v: 135/100/50 range: 600. Gerard Vultee. A very racy sportplane. $4,200; POP: 6, of which 1 [X869N] converted to B-7, and 1 (cancelled license [X369H]) reportedly used by Rocheville for his variable-camber wing design experiments, and 1 [NX12270, possibly reregistered from X846N] for his experiments as Rocheville A with the Deeble Double-Action motor, which never became a household word.

  Emsco B-5 [X849E] (Skyways)

B-5 1930 (ATC 2-391) = 8pChwM; two 300hp Wright J-5, 57'0" wing, and faired-in nose. T V van Stone. POP: 1 converted to twin from B-2 [X849E]. Sold to Compania Nacional de Aviacion in Guatemala in July 1933 for $3,500.

B-7 Sport 1931 (ATC 403) = 2pOmwM; 165hp Wright R-450; span: 36'0" length: 23'9" load: 608 v: 130/110/40 range: 350. $5,950; POP: 1 [NC869N] converted from B-4.

  Emsco B-7C [NC969Y] (Edward J Young coll)
  Emsco B-7CH [NC12247] (Bill Middlebrook coll)

B-7C, -7CH Sport 1931 (ATC 424, 2-396) = 2pOmwM; 165hp Continental A-70; similar data. T V van Stone. $5,950; POP: 2; one B-7C [NC969Y] (scrapped in 1946), and one B-7CH [NC12247] with 170hp Curtiss Challenger. No data, but last known at Multnomah School of Aviation, Portland OR, in 1950. FAA records are incomplete, but do show three B-7 licenses [X870N/872N] as being scrapped Nov 1930, and those were revived for B-7C and -7CH [NC969Y, NC12247] and B-10 [X909Y]. (2-396) for B-7CH with 185hp Challenger.

The B-7CH was purchased by Harold Middlebrook in late 1936 from Scott Flying Service in Long Beach CA for $1600 and flown to Middlesex NY. Soon after it was flown to Haiti via Key West and Cuba by Middlebrook and partner, John Ackerman, refueling along the way from five-gallon cans of gas carried in the cockpits. The original plan was to start an air service in Haiti; however, because of heavy taxation and other troubles with the locals, they flew back to NY. There Ackerman bought it, flew it back to the west coast, and sold it. Middlebrook became a flight instructor at Pensacola in WW2 and founded Penn Yan Aero in 1945.(— Bill Middlebrook 3/17/05)

  Emsco B-8 [X55W] (Walter Boyne coll)

B-8 Flying Wing 1930 = 2pOlwM; 165hp Continental A-70 (later 300hp P&W Wasp Jr); span: 60'0" length: 36'0" v (est): 145/125/x; ff 4/17/30 (p: C Rocheville). Charles Rocheville. "Blown wing" had air ducted from the engine and fed through outlets over the surface. Despite its name, this experimental had a twin-boom empennage, and was designed for endurance of 70 flying hours—Rocheville had plans brewing for a Japan-US flight. POP: 1 prototype [X55W]. Production cancelled by lack of funds, scrapped Nov 1930.

  Emsco B-10 [909Y] (Clark Scott)

B-10 1933 = 2pOhwM; 165hp Continental A-70; span: 36'0" length: 24'2". POP: 1 [X909Y], most likely modified from B-7, and reregistered. Also reportedly had 170hp Challenger at one time.


J L Endicott Airplane Co, Medford, Long Island NY.

1910 - Undescribed biplane with 60hp 3-cylinder two-cycle motor of their own design and make.


Victor Enghusen & Morris Anderson, Frontenac MN.

1931 = 1pOM; 80hp LeRhône rotary. [12903] c/n AJ-3.

Engineering Division

1917: Engr Division, McCook Field, Dayton OH; Hampton Roads VA. 1927: Deactivated. Enginering Division, Bureau of Aircraft Production, tested, modified and rebuilt, and designed and built aircraft, and had experimental stations at both McCook Field and Langley Field VA.

  Engineering Division XB-1A [AS40125] (Leo J Opdyke coll)

B-1 1919 = Rebuilt and improved Bristol F.2B with new veneer-covered fuselage based on tests of USB-1. 2pOB; 300hp Hisso H; span: 39'4" length: 25'6" v: 124. POP: 1 as XB-1A [AS40124] and 1 final modification in 1919 as USXB-1A [AS40125] as McCook Field Project P-90. Production by Dayton-Wright.

  Engineering Division BVL-12 (USAS McCook Field)

BVL-12 1919 = Army day bomber. 2pOB; 400hp Liberty 12; span: 45'3" (?>48'3") length: 31'10" load: 1728# v: 111. Ottorino Pomilio. Based on WW1 Italian PD/PE designs; underslung lower wing, nose radiator; all-wood fuselage. POP: 5 [AS40087/40091]. Also recorded as Pomilio BVL-12.

  Gallaudet CO-1 [68587] (USAAF)

CO-1 1921 = 2pOhwM; 400hp Liberty 12; span: 55'9" length: 33'7" v: 117. All-metal construction, the first as such built in the US. POP: 3 [64321, 68588/68589], the first as McCook Field Project P-234. One also built by Gallaudet [68587] as McCook Project P-281.

CO-2 1922 = 2pOB; 400hp Liberty 12; span: 41'1" length: 30'9" v: 137. POP: 1 [AS68577] as McCook Field Project P-255 and 1 unserialed, used for static testing only. One also produced by Gallaudet.

CO-3 1922 - Fabric-covered CO-1, project cancelled.

  Engineering Division XCO-5 [23-1204] (NASA)
  Engineering Division XCO-5 (NASA)

CO-5 1924 = TP-1 modified with new wings and modified nose dish. POP: 3 as XCO-5 [AS68578/68579, 23-1204], the first as McCook Project P-263, the last as P-305 .

  Engineering Division XCO-6
  Engineering Division XCO-6B [AS23-1236] (McCook Field)
  Engineering Division XCO-6C with oversize test prop

CO-6 c.1927 = 2pOB; inverted, air-cooled 420hp Liberty V-1410; span: 48'0" length: 29'8". POP: 2 as XCO-6, of which 1 refitted with 435hp Liberty 12A as XCO-6B, then with larger prop and redesigned undercarriage as XCO-6C.

DH-4 1918 = Rebuilt de Havilland DH-4. POP: 2 for fuel system tests.

  Engineering Division FVL-8 [40081] (USAS McCook Field)

FVL-8 1919 = Army pursuit. 1pOB; 280hp Liberty 8; span: 26'8" length: 21'8" load: 558# v: 133. Ottorino Pomilio. Based on WW1 Italian aircraft; underslung lower wing with flush center-section radiator; all-wood fuselage. POP: 6 [AS40081/40086]. Also recorded as Pomilio FVL-8.

  Engineering Division GAX
  Engineering Division GA-1 (NASA)

GAX, GA-1 1919 = 3pOT; two 435hp Liberty 12A pushers; span: 65'6" length: 33'8" v: 115. I M Laddon. Gunners in front of engine nacelles. POP: 1 [AS63272] as GAX (Ground-Attack Experimental) prototype and 1 [AS64145] as GA-1 prototype for Boeing Co, who produced 10 as GA-1 [AS64146/64155].

  Engineering Division H-1 (USAF Museum)

H-1 1922 = The first helicopter to actually fly, on 12/18/22. SEE DeBothezat for particulars.

LUSAGH-11, -21 1918 = 2pOB; 408hp Liberty 12; span: 47'1" length: 24'4" load: 1196# v: 114/95/61 range: 275. Packard-Le Pere prototypes as light bombers; repowered with 420hp Bugatti as LUSAGH-21. POP: 1 prototype each. SEE Packard-Le Pere.


  Engineering Division M-1

M-1 1920 = Design of Sperry M-1 (qv) by Alfred Verville, possible construction of a prototype.

  Engineering Division NBL-1 [AS64215] (Mike Bealmear coll)
  Engineering Division NBL-1 Rigging? [AS64215] (Eric Blocher coll)
  Engineering Division NBL-1 in flight (Roy Nagl coll)

NBL-1 (Barling Bomber) aka Wittemann-Lewis 1923 = 6pOT; six 420hp Liberty 12A as two four-blsde pushers and four two-blade trsctors; span: 120'0" length: 65'0" load: 15,437# v: 96/93/61 range: 335; ff: 8/22/23 (p: Lt H R Harris). Walter Barling. Four tails, quad landing gear; empty wt: 27,312#. Contracted to Witteman-Lewis Co for manufacture at Hasbrouck Heights, it was shipped by train unsassembled, in sections, to Wright Field. POP: 1 as XNBL-1 [AS64215] (McCook Field Project P-303). Flown only a few times, then dismantled and scrapped in 1928.

TA-4 1921 - 2pOhwM trainer design cancelled.

  Engineering Division TP-1 (Leo J Opdyke coll)

TP-1 1922 = Pursuit. 2pOB; 420hp Liberty 12A; span: 36'0" length: 25'1" v: 130. POP: 2 [AS68578/68579]; 1 damaged in testing and scrapped, 1 modified as XCO-5 with new wings.

TW-1 1920 = Trainer. 2pOB; span: 41'0" length: 28'10". POP: 2 [AS64317/64318]; 1 with 230hp Liberty 6 and 1 with 350hp Packard 1A-1237. The first one to McCook Field as P-200.

USAC-1 1918 = 2pOB; 400hp Liberty 12; span: 43'9" length: 29'3". Proved to be too heavy for practical use. POP: 1 [AC40045] as McCook Field Project P-28.

USB-1, -2 1918 = Rebuilt British Bristol F.2B, USB-1 with 300hp Hisso H and USB-2 with 290hp Packard-Liberty 12. POP: 2 for testing. [AS40046/40049, AS40096/40098] assigned as USB-1 and [AS40050/40053] as USB-2 but cancelled, not built. USXB-1A SEE B-1.

  Engineering Division USD-9A (Leo J Opdyke coll)

USD-9A 1918 = 2pOB; 400hp Liberty 12; span: 45'11" length: 30'3" load: 1450# v:123 ceiling: 19.000'. Based directly on de Havilland DH-9A. POP: 9 [AS40060/40068]; 3 more were built by Dayton-Wright Co [AS40044, AS40118/40119]. [AS40027/40033] assigned but not built.

VCP, PW-1 - 1pOB; 330hp Wright-Hisso H; span: 32'0" length: 22'7" load: 45,003# v: 154. POP: 3 as VCP-2 [AS64349/64351], later PW-1. Built at McCook Field (first two were Projects P176 and P189); initials were for "Verville-Clark Pursuit;" Alfred Verville, Virginius E Clark. Also 2 produced as Orenco PW-3 (qv).

  Engineering Division VCP-1 Wright Field P-97 [AS40126]
  Verville-Packard R-1 [AS40126] (USAAF)

VCP-1, -1A 1919 = POP: 2 [AS40126/40127], both redesignated VCP-1A after modifications. The first was refitted with 660hp Packard 1A-2025 as winning I-strutted 1920 Pulitzer racer Verville-Packard VCP-R (redesignated as R-1 in 1922), the second never flew.

VCP-2 1919 = Designation assigned, but not used; changed to PW-1.

PW-1 1919 = Redesignated from VCP-2. Tapered wings with I-struts; 330hp Hisso H; span: 32'0" length: 22'6". POP: 2 [AS64349/64350]; the first for static testing only, the second as improved VCP-1 with 350hp Packard 1A-1237.

PW-1A, -2 1920 = Fokker D.7 wings with new N-struts; span: (upper) 29'0" (lower) 31'2" v: 134 ceiling: 17,200'. POP: 1 [AS64351], scrapped in 1926. A projected PW-1B with high-lift wings was cancelled.

XB-1 SEE B-1.

-Pomilio BVL-12 1918 = POP: 6 [AS40086/40091]; [AS40087] as McCook Field Project P-68.

-Pomilio FVL-8 1918 = POP: 6 [AS40080/40085]; [AS40081] as McCook Field Project P-69.


(Richard B "Dick") Engle Aircraft Corp (aka Palmer Inventions Inc, Engel Air Products Inc, Palmer Cam Engine Mfg Co), Framingham, Natick, Boston, and Cambridge MA.

10 aka 1-C 1931 = 3pCM; Kinner-Palmer. POP: 1 [795N] s/n 4.

T-1 Little Chief 1929 = 2pOB; 75hp Palmer, later Velie; span: 27'10" length: 19'3". POP: 1 [567] c/n 1. Built by Engel at Farham & Nelson, Forest Hills MA "to conduct motor tests for Palmer Schock Cam engine," and sold to James Duane (then secretary/treasurer of Palmer Engine Co) of Brookline MA 12/2/29. Sold the next day to New England Transport Co, Hillsgrove RI (SEE New England), for "$1,384.00 in damaged and partly repaired condition" from "Duane Engel Airplane Co." Remodeled with 60hp Velie and "smaller lower wings and new type landing gear" 4/11/30—was likely the prototype for their planes—then remained in the Armitage family until sold 1/19/35.


Bruce Engle and Garland Myers, Burlington IA.

Red Wing 1928 = 2pOhwM; 90hp Curtiss OX-5; ff: 9/9/28 (p: Mike Muphy). Designed and built by two non-pilots for use in their own flight training. [7782].


Peter & W P English, Oakland and San Francisco CA.

  English line drawing

1908 = This father-and-son team built a full-size 1p helicopter with 60hp Hall-Scott V-8, and two hinged 16' rotors mounted on a triangular, steel-tube platform—a primitive VTOL concept. "Planes" indicated in the linked drawing are curiously shaped, unexplained, and do not show up in a photo that appeared in 1909 Jane's. Not only that, but that craft looked entirely different from this side-view sketch in 1908 Jane's, which shows a quad-gear cart with sulky wheels under a frame with two circular helical rotor-forms fore and aft, and no rudder. The only thing in common with the two is an identical report that during an unmanned full-power trial in a shed, in July 1909, it broke its tethers and ambitiously smashed itself into the ceiling. Technically it did fly, but in which of its forms is unknown.

Enos Parasol SEE Russell Sport


A Y Ensley, Livingston CA.

A-1 1930 = Unspecified type with LeRhône engine, built from W F Crawford plans. Logically, specs and data for Crawford A-1 were similar. [10607], cancelled 7/25/34.


1959: (R J) Enstrom Helicopters, Menominee MI. 1969: Div of Purex Corp. 1971: Acquired as Enstrom Helicopter Corp by Franklin Capital Corp, Livonia MI (pres: F Lee Bailey); purchase also included assets of Brantly Helicopter Corp.

  Enstrom 280C [N2019H]

280C Shark 1973 = Advanced version of F-28. 2pCH; 200hp Lycoming-Rajay supercharged H1O-360E; v: 115.

280FX Shark 1983 = 3pCH; 225hp Lycoming HIO-360-F1AD. POP: 4 exports to Venezuela.

280L Hawk 1978 = 4pCH; 225hp Lycoming HIO-360-G1AD; rotor: 34'0" length: 32'4" load: 1038# v: 117/106/0 range: 203; ff: 12/27/78. POP: 1 [N5698E].

480 Eagle 1989 = 4pCH; 420# Allison 250-C20W turboshaft; load: 1130# v: 140/110/0 range: 385; ff: 10/x/89 [N8631E].

F-28 1960 = 2pCH; 11/12/60. POP: 1.

  Enstrom F-28A [N40042] (Enstrom)

F-28A 1962 = 3pCH; 200hp Lycoming H1O-360C; rotor: 32'0" length: 29'4" load: 700# v: 112/100/0 range: 200 ceiling: 12,000'; ff: 5/27/62. Three-bladed rotor. $39,750.

F-28B 196? = No data.

  Enstrom F-28C [N637H] (Roger Cain)

F-28C 196? = 205hp Lycoming HIO-360-E1AD; v: 161 range: 237.

F-28F Falcon 1977 = Utility version of F-28C; 225hp Lycoming.

T-28 1968 = F-28A with 240# Garett-AiResearch TSE 36-1 turboshaft; load: 1000# v: 129/110/0 range: 330; ff: 5/x/68.

TH-28 19?? = 3p military version of 480.


Ben T Epps, Athens GA. 1917: Epps Flying Service. 1919: (Monte) Rolfe-Epps Flying Service.

  Epps Unknown date (Berhard C F Klein coll)

1907-12 = Several Antoinette and Wright types were built by Epps, but no data were recorded other than they were his own scratch-built creations and that he had difficulty getting most of them off the ground. However, his persistence paid off in his design of 1912, which did fly.

Biplane 1928 = 2pOB; 40hp Ford A, later DH Gipsy. [74W].

Light Monoplane 1925 = 1pOmwM; 17hp Indian Chief; span: 25'0" (?>28'0") length: 19'9" v: 60/x/25. Dry wt: 350#. POP: 2; the first was sold, and the second was 2p with 28hp Lawrance in 1926, and later a 40hp converted Ford A. The airfield at Athens was renamed in Epps' honor for his role as Georgia's aviation pioneer.

M-1 1928 = 2pOM; 40hp Lawrance L-4. [744].


SEE ALSO Alon, Forney, Mooney

  Sanders advertisement

1934: Engineering & Research Corp (pres: Henry A Berliner), Washington DC and Riverdale MD; no aircraft production until 1936. 1947: ERCO, Hyattsville MD. 1948: Built in limited numbers by Sanders-Ercoupe. 1951: ATC sold to Univair, Denver CO, who made parts only. 1955: Rights to Fornaire Aircraft Co, Ft Collins CO. 1965: Alon Inc (John Allen Jr, Lee Higdon). 1968: Mooney Aircraft Co. 1973: Reacquisiton of rights by Univair.

  ERCO 191-A [X16796] (SEE comments below)

191-A 1936 = 2pClwM; 285hp Jacobs L-5. Enigmatic first production with very little data. Somewhat of a Harlow look to it. Design credit reported as "Don Berliner"—a misprint, or was Don Berlin involved? POP: 1 [X16796].

ERCO 191-A is a real challenge. The only register note I found is in Weekly List, Vol 8 No 21, 10/3-16/36: "*X-16796 Engineering & Research Corp, 6100 Sligo Mill Rd, NE Washington DC; Engineering & Research 191A, 2PCLM, 191A-1, '36, Jacobs L-5 285hp. Expires 3/1/37." The asterisk indicated that the plane had never been licensed or identified before.
    The picture, possibly that 191-A, is from Vintage Airplane Jan 1993, with accompanying text: "The Mystery Plane remains somewhat of a mystery. The photo appeared in Ken Beatty's book, Cradle of American Aviation, an account of the history of College Park airport outside of Washington DC." The caption with the photo credited its design to the company that "built the Ercoupe," with Don Berliner as designer. No confirmation of this claim has been found. Don Berliner must be a misprint. They can't possibly mean Don Berlin, who was "director, aircraft development section, Fisher Body Division, General Motors Corp 1934-42" (Who's Who in World Aviation 1955). So it comes back to Henry Berliner—did he have "Don" as a nickname?
    Henry Berliner organized ERCO in 1934 in DC to produce aircraft production machinery (AAHS Journal Spring 1985). ERCO was situated in notheast DC, and College Park lies just outside northeast DC. Everything fits, except in Fred Weick's memoirs, he says: "Up to 1936 ERCO had never been involved per se in building airplanes." (— Lennart Johnsson 1/30/99)

To add to the confusion, I have a pre-war Ercoupe brochure that on the back page dates ERCO as "Established 1930." (— K O Eckland 3/1/02)

310 1937 = 2pClwM; 65hp ERCO (Harold Morehouse). Fred Weick. POP: 1 [X19148], origin of the famous Ercoupe line. Test-flown with 40hp Continental A-40.

  Ercoupe taildragger Modified as Nix Baby Beech 18 [N97BB] (Vic Smith)

415-A, 415-B 1939 = 2pClwM; 65hp ERCO IL-116. $4,500; POP: 10 initial production through 1940, although no records show use of those suffixes, and official production assignment was 415-C.

  Ercoupe 415-C [N3776H] (Gene Palmer coll)
  Ercoupe 415-C on floats (EDO ad)

415-C 1940, 1945 (ATC 718) = 2pClwM; 65hp Continental A-65-8; span: 30'0" length: 20'9" load: 535# v: 117/105/45 range: 350. Fred Weick. Two- or three-control system options. $2,590-2,650; POP: 112 (includes the 10 from 1939); war curtailed further civil production. Two wooden test Ercoupes were made in 1941 totally from birch and plywood because of an expected aluminum shortage, but later scrapped. The 1945 two-control model had 75hp Continental C-75; load: 510# v: 122/110/56 range: 400. Gross wt: 1260#. From $2,999; POP: 4,311. Despite being a credible, safe, spinproof, and easy-to-fly airplane, Ercoupe never gained deserved popularity because it was in fact too easy to fly—a threat to flight instructors?—and was scoffed at by "real" pilots for not having a conventional control system. Yet thousands were sold, even at such notable non-aviation outlets as the men's department at Macy's, and an entirely new category of CAA license was created for thousands of new pilots who never felt a rudder pedal.

  Ercoupe Retractable gear (magazine clip)

A prototype with retractable gear was built in 1946 and flown with a bigger (c.130hp) engine [N93541]. Certification never happened, and sources claim it was probably flying under (718). There was also a 4-5p Ercoach in development, featuring dual fuel-injected engines built flush into the wings. Planned, as well, was a pusher with retractable gear and an Ercoupelike dual tail. Rumors have it that an unfinished prototype was found in the 1990s and was finished as flyable.

415-C/D 1947 (ATC 718) = 2pClwM; 75hp Continental C-75; load: 510# v: 122/110/48 ceiling: 14,000 range: 450. Gross wt: 1260#. From $3,500; POP: 368. Introduced after ERCO decided that the D's 9° up-elevator travel limitation seriously affected landing qualities, so restored the elevator limit in the C, but left an option of converting the plane to a D.
415-D 1947 (ATC 787) = 2pClwM; 75hp Continental A-75; span: 30'0" length: 20'9" load: 595# v: 122/110/56 range: 450. Stainless steel front fuselage skin, larger baggage area, 9° up-elevator travel. Gross wt: 1400#. $3,590 (less optional crosswind gear, lights, radio, starter, and generator); POP: about 75.

415-E, -F 1948 (ATC 787) = 2pClwM; 85hp Continental C-85; load: 586# v: 127/114/56 ceiling: 12,500'. New Split elevator kept flying characteristics of 415-C. 20° up-elevator travel. 415-F had fuel injection. $3,995; POP: 127.

415-G, Clubair 1949 (ATC 787) = 2pClwM; 85hp Continental C-85; load: 562# v: 125/110/56 range: 450 ceiling: 11,000'. Deluxe 415 with generator, starter, lights, radio; larger baggage area; bubble windshield. 415-G featured a "Kiddy-Seat." Two- or three-control system—optional rudder pedals were more psychological than practical. $3,950; POP: less than 140.

415-H 1949 (ATC 718) = 75hp Continental C-75; load: 460# v: 120/105/56 ceiling: 14,000'. Gross wt: 1260#. No electrical system. POP: 7. Total all 415 models 1940-41 and 1947-52: 5,140 (?> some sources show 5,028 including production by Sanders, or 5,685 including subsequent production by Alon, Forney, and Mooney).

  Ercoupe XPQ-13 Hardin restoration [N37143] (Harry L Francis)
  Ercoupe XPQ-13 Faster than a speeding Air-Knocker! [N28655] (Air Force Assn)

PQ-13, O-55 1941 = USAAC for planned use as aerial target; specs similar to pre-war 415-C, but with O-300. POP: 3 initially as YO-55. [41-18875], with YO-170-3, was received by the USAAC on 2/26/41. More auspicious, the first Jet Assisted Take-off airplane was a 1941 65hp Ercoupe [NC28655] s/n 11 (?>[N2049H] s/n 2673), designated as XPQ-13 (p: Lt Homer Bushey, at March Field CA). Those tests led to widespread use of JATO during WW2, as well as the foundation of Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A black powder burn released 174# of thrust for 12 seconds. The first burn tests were conducted at 6000', then followed a series of tests at take-off that provided spectacular results. JATO cut the take-off distance in half in all weight configurations. That aircraft reportedly was still active in San Rafael CA at this writing.

The JATO Ercoupe has been the subject of much debate and folklore. The real rocket-powered Ercoupe, [NC28655] s/n 11, can be verified by looking at the photos in Stanley G Thomas' 1991 book, The Ercoupe, page 66. The photo was taken in Aug 1941 and is from Cal Tech archives. That Ercoupe was built on 12/4/40 and sold to USAAC on 1/4/41 for $10.00, delivered to AAC Material Division, Wright Field OH. I have the FAA files to substantiate this information. ([N28655] now belongs to a Grumman aircraft.)

    The first military Ercoupe, about which I know more than the other two, is my [N37143] s/n 110, acquired on 8/19/41 as the last PQ-13 purchased by the USAAC [41-25196], delivered to Wright Field and officially entered into inventory on 12/8/41 as one of two PQ-13's submitted to compete for the Aerial Target Contract, which Al Mooney's PQ-14 subsequently won. According to numerous books written about the Ercoupe, s/n 110 was the very last production model produced before the outbreak of WW2. S/ns 111 and 112 were built in 1942 from spare parts. S/n 112 is documented to have flown with the Civil Air Patrol in WW2. The fate of the other XPQ-13
( ed: [41-39099]) is of some mystery—one report claims that it went down off the New Jersey coast in WW2.

    I inquired to FAA if s/n 11 had been issued a different N-number after the war, and the answer was negative. The last activity of record on that aircraft was 2/3/42. A letter from CAA to USAAC stated that [NC28655] and [NC37143] had been taken over by the Air Corps, that the planes had been canceled on CAA records, and that airworthiness certificates and operation records issued by the CAA inspector were void and should be returned to their office.

    There is some debate about the rocket-powered Ercoupe being designated as YO-55. The JATO Ercoupe did not have an official flight record as that was a top secret program at the time. USAF Historical Society as of 6/20/2000 assumes (until we can find more paperwork) that the rocket-powered Ercoupe and the YO-55 were one and the same. However, according to YO-55's flight records, no indication exists that it ever went to March Field. We have paperwork on two of the three actual military Ercoupes as recognized by FAA, USAF, and USAF Historical Society. (— Mark Hardin, Terrell TX)

  Twin Ercoupe [NX93384] (Peter M Bowers coll)
  Twin Ercoupe [NX93384] (1948 Flying via Charles Garrison)
  Twin Ercoupe Derelict

Twin Ercoupe c.1948 = Two 415 fuselages joined much like the North American P-82, for use air shows. It had conventional controls and could be flown from either unit; v: 140/100/75. (Thanks to Eut Tileston for steering us to Pete Bowers' photo! — 2/2/03)

The twin Ercoupe was built by J B Collie, Southeast Air Service, for the Thrasher Brothers Air Circus, Elberton GA. It was flown by Grady Thrasher and his brother, who rolled, looped, and spun it (yes, it would spin!) They also featured landing a J-3 Cub on a platform mounted on a Ford convertible. Grady lived in Huntsville (AL) from the mid-'70s until his death a few years ago—his stories were fantastic and I really enjoyed them, but will not quote for fear of getting them wrong. (— Charles Garrison 2/17/03)


1911: (--) Erickson, Springfield MA.

Taft-Kingsbury 1912 = 1pOBF; 35hp Harriman; span: (upper) 32'0" (lower) 26'0". "Hydroaeroplane" with twin pontoons; no other data found.


T E Erickson, Minneapolis MN.

1938 = 2pOM; Velie. [18265] c/n TE-9.


1971: Erickson Air-Crane Inc, Central Point OR.

  Erickson Air-Crane [N178AC] (Erickson)

Air-Crane 197? = Modification of Sikorsky S-64 for fire fighting, heavy equipment transport, and logging roles. First company to commercially harvest timber by helicopter.


Louis Erickson, Springfield MA.

Biplane 1910 = OB; 30hp Harriman.


Ernst Flying Machine Co, no location.

1907 = No data.


Joseph W Esch, Akron OH.

Special c.1928 = Modified Curtiss JN-4D. [1773] was one of several owned and modified by Esch.


1942: Cheston L Eshelman Corp, Dundalk MD.

  Eshelman EF-100 [NC41894]

EF-100 Winglet 1945 = 2pClwM; 100hp Franklin 4AC; span: 30'0" length: 18'11" load: 615# v: 135/118/55 range: 490. $2,995; POP: ??, [prototype NX41820, NC41894, et al].

  Eshelman Flying Flounder [NX28993] (clips from demo film)

Flying Flounder 1942 = 1p wingless "flying pancake" experiment; no specs or data found, but a film clip proved that it did fly. POP: 1 [NX28993].

  Eshelman FW5 3-view (clip from 9/31/44 Flight)

FW-5 1942 = 4pClwM; 235hp Lycoming; span: 30'0" length: 23'0" load: 1140# v: 180/165/50 range: 700. Flying wing concept. POP: 2 [NX41807, NX41809]; wartime Flight (UK) reports 5 built but we found no matching regs in a limited search.


Kenneth Eskildsen, Lexington NB.

Indian Chief 1935 = 1pOM; 22hp Indian. [11099].


Essig Aero Advertising Service, Los Angeles CA.

  Essig Ace [10029]

Ace 1928 = 2pOlwM; 125hp Siemens; span: 34'0" length: 26'0" load: 500# v:125/110/38. "... building a typically German low-wing monoplane with plywood wing and welded steel fuselage" (Aviation 9/1/28). POP: 1 [10029].


W C Etheredge, Spartanburg SC.

Trainer 1930 = Unknown type; Chevrolet auto engine [323V].


1957: Evangel Aircraft Inc, Orange City IA.

  Evangel Rev Edmund Kalau and pilot Maurice Pickard, 1974 (Mike Allen coll)

4500 1964 (TC A2WI) = STOL aircraft intended for heavy-duty bush operations, notably used by Pacific Missionary Aviation in providing humanitarian services to islanders in the South Pacific. 9pClwM; two 300hp Lycoming IO-540-K1B5; span: 41'3" length: 31'6" load: 2050# v: 230/175/67 range: 745 ceiling: 21,030'; ff: 6/x/64. Conventional landing gear; 500' take-off run, 475' landing run. Carl Mortenson. POP: 8.


(W Samuel) Evans Aircraft, La Jolla CA.

VP-1 c.1968 = 1pOlwM; 40-60hp Volkswagen; span: 24'0" length: 18'0" load: 310# v: x/75/40 (40hp). Initially called Volksplane. Ex-Convair engineer Evans' intention was to offer the novice home-builder an all-wood aircraft that was easy to build, and safe to fly. Evidently he succeeded, for 6,000 sets of plans for VP-1 and -2 had been sold by early 1982.

VP-2 c.1970 = 2pOlwM; 60-65hp Volkswagen; span: 27'0" length: 19'3" load: 400# v: 120/100/40. Larger, two-place side-by-side version of -1.


Ira Everage, Houston TX.

  Everage Texas Turbo (Ira Everage)

Texas Turbo 1995 = 2pClwM rg; 60hp R-R Rover 1S90 turboprop; no specs found. Designed and built by Burt Wilcutt et al. All-metal construction, tandem seats, tapered wing with the Midget Mustand airfoil, tail from a Comanche 250, Mooney-type tri-gear. Fuel was kerosene or #1 diesel. POP: 1 [N64TT] c/n 1. Planned production naver came about and the ship, while reportedly flying in tests with good stability and performance, never accumulated its 40-hour requirements for certification and was listed for sale as-is in 2007.


Marvin Everett Sr, Somerville NJ.

Sportsman c1975 = 1pOB; 180hp Lycoming; span: 20'1" length: 16'10".


George Exel, Clifton NJ.

#1 1920 = 1pOH; 50hp Gnôme; rotors: 21'6". Empty wt: 654#. Two-blade coaxial rotors. In tests the helicopter was barely able to hover without the pilot on board, and the control system proved ineffective.

#2 1923 = 1pOH; 80hp LeRhône; rotor 24'0". Co-rotor system. "The co-rotor system refers to the idea of reacting shaft torque of an engine-driven propeller or screw by the crankcase [of the rotary engine], to which the reacting rotor is attached. In Exel's arrangement the crankcase drives the lifting screw [propeller] while the otherwise stationary shaft of the rotary drives the rotor in counter-rotation." Propeller diameter was 8'4". Tests were conducted indoors in 1923. With full throttle and the operator standing beside the machine, it barely lifted one wheel off the ground.

#3 1925 = 1pOH; 80hp LeRhône. Rebuild of #2. An intermediate rotor was introduced making it a "triaxial" machine because of its three rotating members. A new, 6' lifting screw was used, while that of the two-blade intermediate rotor was 14'. The latter included in its hub a planetary gearbox. In tests this variant was able to lift off the ground, but the control system proved to be of little use.

#4 1926 = 1pOH; 110hp LeRhône. A modified version of #3. The intermediate two-blade rotor was replaced by a 16' four-blade rotor. Thrust was improved, but not controllability. Destroyed in a windstorm in late 1926.

#5 1930 = 1pOH; 110hp LeRhône; upper rotor: 9'6" lower rotor: 34'0". A co-rotor design. For the first time a method of cyclic control was introduced, using ailerons on the main rotor blades. A swashplate accounted for both cyclic and collective control of the main rotor, which was of a more modern high-aspect ratio type. Tests showed the rotor to be responsive to the cyclic and collective system used; however, vibration was excessive, and the machine was incapable of hovering. Exel then paused in helicopter research until after WW2.

Model 100 1946 = Conventional tail-rotor helicopter with swashplate controls, flown about 70 hours; 100hp Franklin. No specs found. War surplus Platt-LePage rotors. It was reported that Exel built his seventh and last helicopter in 1967 at age 74.


Express Aircraft Co (Paul Fagerstrom & Lawrence Olson), Olympia WA.

c.1988 = 4pClwM; 300hp Lycoming IO-540K; span: 31'0" length: 25'0" v: x/224/58 load: 1360# range: 1300 ceiling: 20,000'. Based on 1980s design by Ken Wheeler. Composite materials; fixed tri-gear. Offered in kit form to the home-builder market for $35,000.


(Lee U) Eyerly Aircraft Corp, Eyerly School of Aeronautics, Salem OR. SEE ALSO Church & Miller.

Sport 1937 = 2pOhwM; 60hp LeBlond 5D. Parasol wing. [15517].

Monoplane 1929 = 3pO/ChwM; 97hp Siemens-Halske SH-14 or 100hp Kinner K-5; span: 34'6" length: 22'1" load: 900#. Cabin seated two side-by-side with the pilot's cockpit on top behind the wing. POP: about 6; at least one with 125hp Warner [10282] c/n 5, and one with 70hp Velie [X508E] c/n 1.

  Eyerly Whiffle Hen (1929 Aero Digest)

Whiffle Hen 1931 = 2pChwM; 30hp Szekely; span: 35'6" length: 18'9" load: 395# v: 80/68/30 range: 250. Lee Eyerly. Named after a newspaper cartoon character. $1,200; POP: 2, c/ns 1 and 2, the first of which was still active into the 1970s; the second had 37hp Continental, and added wing dihedral; span: 35'0" length: 18'11". Also noted as [276W], powered by Siemens, which could be a registration error for Comet 7-D.

  Eyerly-Lee Comet [27W] (O R Philips via W F Yeager coll)
  Eyerly-Lee Comet later version [27W] (Lloyd Phillips via Ralph Nortell coll)

-Lee Comet 7-D 1929 = 3pO/ChwM. Prototype first had 90hp Curtiss OX-5, but 100hp Kinner K-5 and Siemens SH-12 are seen in later photos. Others listed in registers only as Coupe might be the same, or could be Sport—eg: [10651] c/n 6, [27W] c/n 4.

"When the weight of the paper equals the weight of the airplane, only then you can go flying." — attributed to Donald Douglas


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