REVISED: 8/1/08

Thomas, Thomas-Morse

1910: (William T & Oliver W) Thomas Bros Co, Hammondsport NY; 1910: Hornell NY; 1910-15: Bath NY. 1912-13: Thomas School of Aviation Inc, Cayuga Lake NY. 1913: Thomas Bros Aeroplane Co, Ithaca NY. 1915: Thomas Aeromotor Co. 1917: Merger and recapitalization as Thomas-(Frank L) Morse (Morse Chain Co) Aircraft Corp, Ithaca NY. 1929: Merger as Thomas-Morse Div, Consolidated Aircraft Corp. 1934: Thomas-Morse Div discontinued.

1910 Thomas (National Archives)

1910 = 2pOB; chain-driven 22hp Kirkham V-8 pusher; span: 27'0" length: 25'0"; ff: 6/25/10 (p: Bert Chambers). William T Thomas. Quad landing gear with bamboo skids. Modified with twin rudders and direct-drive motor.

1911 Thomas The first dual-control trainer? (Roy Wingate coll)
1911 Thomas 2-view (1911 Aeronautics)

1911 = 1-2pOB; 65hp Kirkham I-6 pusher; span: 31'6" length: 20'0". Quad gear; aka Thomas Headless Biplane.
1912 = 1pOB; 65hp Kirkham tractor version of TA. POP: 1. Further development was abandoned in favor of pusher versions.
1913 = 1pOmwM; 40hp Maximotor or 65hp Kirkham pusher; span: 32'0" length: 30'0". Blériot look-alike with quad gear, aka Thomas Monoplane.
1913 = 2pOB; 65hp Kirkham pusher; span: (upper) 37'0" (lower) 27'0" v: 58 range: 70-100. Design modification of the 1912 tractor TA with nacelle fuselage; twin tails, underslung lower wing; aka Thomas Standard Biplane and Nacelle Pusher.
Thomas B-4 (Consolidated)

B-3, -4 1912 = 2-3pOBFb; 90hp Austro-Diamler pusher; v: 65. Wood hull covered with galvanized iron sheeting. 1914 version incorporated streamlining, 1915 model was 3p "luxury cruiser" with mahogany hull. POP: 3 or 4.
BP 1916 - Huge 3pOB twin-motor, folding-wing "battleplane" project; span: 78'6" length: 37'6" v(est): 89/x/46. Construction underway, but cancelled after Army expressed no interest.
Thomas D-2 (clip: 1915 Flying)

D-2 1915 = Civil trainer. 2pOB; 135hp Sturtevant; span: 52'9" length: 29'9" load: 1200# v: 86/x/38. Benjamin D Thomas (no family relation; principal designer for most Thomas and T-Ms). Improved T-2. POP: 2 to USN as HS.
D-5 1916 = Army observation. Remotored D-2; 135hp Thomas 8. POP: 2 [AS114/115].
E 1913 = Developed from TA; 65hp Kirkham pusher; span: (upper) 37'0" (lower) 27'0" length: 27'0". POP: reportedly 12. One, aka Thomas Special Biplane, with 33'0" wings and 80hp Curtiss pusher, set an altitude record of 13,000' in 1913 (p: Frank Burnside).
Thomas HS (Naval Review via Jos Heyman)

HS 1915 = 2pOBF; 135hp Thomas Aeromotor. POP: 2 D-2s ordered by USN in 1916 [A57/58], but both were involved in crashes before delivery. Rebuilt in 1916 with 48'6" wing and 135hp Sturtevant for use as trainers.
Thomas T-2 with OX motor (

T-2 1914 = 2pOB; 90hp Austro-Diamler; span: 36'0" load: 897# v: 83. Benjamin D Thomas, based on his Curtiss J design. POP: 24 with 90hp Curtiss OX exported to Great Britain in 1915.
TA 1910 = 2-3pOBAm/F; 50-65hp Kirkham pusher; span: The second Thomas product. Four trailing-edge ailerons, nacelle fuselage; early seaplane models had tubular wing floats. POP: 2 recorded, plus perhaps others built with varied motors of 65-90hp; first was the 1910 model with exposed cockpit and interplane ailerons, which set an endurance record of four hours in 1912 (p: Walter Johnson). Tested as a single-float tractor version 1912, but results were inconclusive.
Thomas-Morse TA Tractor

TA Tractor 1912 = 2pOBF; 50hp Kirkham; span: (upper) 37'0" (lower) 27'0" length: 27'0" v: 58. Partially-covered fuselage. Probable single-float conversion from TA, it proved lacking in performance compared to the pusher. POP: 1.
TA Hydro 1913 = 1pOBFb; 90hp Austro-Diamler; span: 33'0" length: 23'0". First all-metal hull in USA. Also fitted with 100hp Maximotor.
-Morse M-23 1922 = 1pOB; 425hp Curtiss D-12; span: 36'3" length: 20'0". POP: 1 for Army evaluation.
Thomas-Morse MB-1 (Consolidated)

-Morse MB-1 1918 = 1pOhwM; 400hp Liberty 12; span: 37'0" length: 22'0". Faired lifting struts, parasol wing. POP: 1, flown only once, as the landing gear proved to be too frail for its weight—it collapsed while taxiing out for another trial flight.
Thomas-Morse MB-2 [AS25806] (USAAF)

-Morse MB-2 1918 = 2pOB; 400hp Liberty 12-C; span: 31'0" length: 24'0" load: 726#. POP: 1, refitted with 450hp Liberty and four-bladed prop, but lacked performance [AS25806]. Unrecorded if it ever completed flight tests.
Thomas-Morse MB-3 [AS63336] (USAAC)

Thomas-Morse MB-3 Painted WW1 for film "Wings" (art: K O Eckland)

-Morse MB-3 1919 = 1pOB; 300hp Wright-Hisso H; span: 26'0" length: 20'0" load: 823# v: 141/125/x (?>152/144/x) range: 310 (?>288) ceiling: 23,700'; ff: 2/2/19. Design influenced by French SPAD. Design elements went into Boeing PW-9. POP: 50 for Army [AS63331/63380], 10 for USMC [A6060/6069]; plus 1 static and 3 flying prototypes [AS40092/40095], and 4 production for tests at McCook Field [AS63332, AS63336/63337].
Thomas-Morse MB-3A (USAF Wright Field)

MB-3A, -3M 1922 = New cooling system, four-bladed prop; ff: June 7, 1922. POP: 200 contracted by the government to Boeing Co in 1920 [AS68237/68436], some of which later became MB-3M advanced trainers. Thomas-Morse POP: 3 clipped-wing models in 1921, with 1 becoming MB-6, and 10 for USMC in 1921.

MB-3B - Modified Boeing four-aileron design was cancelled.

Thomas-Morse MB-4 (Consolidated)

-Morse MB-4 1920 = Mail carrier. 2pOB; two 300hp Wright-Hisso H; span: 45'6" length: 25'5" load: 2010# v: 140/122/x (single-engine cruise: 100) range: 600. A centerline tractor/pusher engine nacelle pod in the middle, and twin fuselages from surplus MB-3s on either side, provided only bad characteristics—one fuselage tended to take off before the other, no communication between cockpits, excessive motor vibration, etc. POP: 1, never used in USPO service, scrapped 1921, and 3 to Army [AS64306, AS64373/64374]; the first one to McCook Field as P-172.
-Morse MB-5 = Enigmatic model showing up on Army records but not in T-M references. POP: 10 to Army [AS64375/64384].
Thomas-Morse R-2 [AS68537] (NASA)

-Morse MB-6, R-2 1921 = From MB-3; v: 185. POP: 3, of which 1 was used for static tests, 1 crashed, and the last was redesignated R-2 for 1921 Pulitzer races (p: John A Macready) [AS68537].
Thomas-Morse MB-7 [64373] (AAHS coll)

-Morse MB-7, R-5 1921 = USN racer from USAS inventory. MB-3 converted to 1pOhwM; 400hp Wright-Hisso H-3 (?>585hp Packard 1A-2025); span: 29'0" length: 25'0" v: 155; ff: 9/29/22 (p: Capt Frank O Hunter). Strut-braced, gulled, parasol wing. POP: 2 as R-5 military entries in 1921 Pulitzer races; [AS64373=A6070] (dropped out with lubrication problems) and [AS64374=A6071] (destroyed in crash during trial flight) (?>[AS68561/68562]?). One reportedly tested with 400hp Curtiss D-12, both subsequently destroyed in static testing.
-Morse MB-9 1921 = Army pursuit. 1pOhwM modified from MB-10 with 300hp Wright H-3 and 29'0" wing, but still suffered design and structural problems. POP: 1, was test-flown a few times (p: Paul Wilson), then relegated to storage.
Thomas-Morse MB-10 (Consolidated)

-Morse MB-10 1921 = Army primary trainer. 2pOhwM; 110hp LeRhône rotary. All-metal trainer had poor flight characteristics, was converted into MB-9. POP: 1.
-Morse O-6 - 2pOB; 400hp Liberty 12. Metal-frame versions of Douglas O-2 built under government contract.
Thomas-Morse XO-6 [25-435] (USAAF)

XO-6 1926 = POP: 1 to McCook Field for testing as P-439 [25-435], and 1 with 435hp Liberty V-1650-1 redesignated as O-6 [25-436]..

O-6 1926 = POP: 1 XO-6 [25-436] and 3 production with Liberty 12 [25-437/439].

Thomas-Morse XO-6B [25-440] (magazine clip)

XO-6B 1925 = Redesign of O-6 with 450hp P&W R-1340, revised wing covering and bracing, corrugated metal fuselage skin. POP: 1 [25-440] as prototype for O-19; McCook tester as P-503.

-Morse O-19 - Improved version of XO-6 design. 2pOB; span: 39'9" length: 28'4" load: 1078# v: 139/121/x range: 462 (data for O-19B).
XO-19 1929 = Prototype with 450hp P&W R-1340-3; ff: 4/x/29. POP: 1 [28-400]. Became XO-19B.

O-19 1929 = 500hp R-1340-9. POP: 2 for service tests, became O-20 [28-401] and -21 [29-369].

O-19A 1929 = Modified fuel tank. POP: 1 [29-370].

XO-19B 1930 = Conversion from XO-19. POP: 1 for McCook Field tests as P-598 [28-400].

Thomas-Morse O-19B (Thomas-Morse)

O-19B 1930 = First production with new cockpits; 450hp R-1340-7. POP: 70 [30-90/159], the first converted to Y1O-33.

Thomas-Morse O-19C (USAAF)

O-19C 1931 = Ring cowling and tail wheel. POP: 71 built by Consolidated Co [31-278/348].

O-19D 1931 = POP: 1 converted from O-19C as staff transport for the Secretary of War [31-279].

Thomas-Morse O-19E (Gene Palmer coll)

O-19E 1932 = 575hp R-1340-15; span: 40'0" length: 28'10" v: 156. POP: 30 [31-523/552].

-Morse O-20 1929 = O-19 with 525hp P&W R-1690-1. POP: 1 as YO-20 [28-402], plus 1 redesignated from O-19 [28-401].
-Morse O-21 - O-19 with 600hp Curtiss H-1640 Chieftain.
Thomas-Morse XO-21 [28-403] (USAF)

XO-21 1929 = POP: 1 [28-403].

O-21 1939 = POP: 1 redesignated from O-19 [29-369].

XO-21A 1929 = XO-21 refitted with 525hp Wright R-1750-1.

-Morse O-23 1929 = O-19 with 600hp Curtiss GV-1570-29 Conqueror; span: 29'9" v: 192. POP: 1 as YO-23 [29-352].
Thomas-Morse YO-41 [30-90] as X0-932 (Albert Hansen coll)
Thomas-Morse YO-41 [30-90] as X0-932 (Albert Hansen coll)

-Morse O-33, O-41 1931 = 2pOswB conversion from O-19B with Curtiss V-1570-11, sesqui-wings, revised tail; ff: 6/4/31. POP: 1 as Y1O-33 (aka XO-932) [30-90], thn redesignated as Y1O-41 for Wright Field tests (v: 195). Rebuilt as Consolidated 23 in 1934 for use as company plane [NR33Y], then sold to Mexico in 1936 [XABDX].
-Morse O-42 (XO-924) 1932 - Monoplane project, never completed beyond the fuselage stage, which was used for static testing.
Thomas-Morse XP-13 [29-453] (Gordon S Williams coll)

-Morse P-13 Viper 1929 = 1pOB; 600hp Curtiss H-1640-1; span: 28'0" length: 23'6" load: 994# v: 172/138/x ceiling: 20,775'. Metal fuselage with corrugated skin. POP: 1 prototype as XP-13 for Wright Field tests [29-453].
Thomas-Morse XP-13A [29-453] (USAF Museum)

XP-13A 1930 = XP-13 repowered with 450hp P&W SR-1340-9; load: 970# v: 189/150/x. Destroyed in a crash.

-Morse R-2 SEE MB-6.
-Morse R-5 SEE MB-7.
Thomas-Morse S-4  Possible Yackey 3p conversion

-Morse S-4 - 1pOB with various rotaries. B D Thomas. Evaluated for combat, but rejected and used as a trainer. In considerable varied civil use from war surplus; about 60 show thusly on records, with many converted to 90hp Curtiss OX-5.
Thomas-Morse S-4  Prototype

S-4 1917 = POP: 1 civil prototype with 100hp Gnôme; v: 95; ff: 6/?/17 (p: Paul D Wilson), 12 to USN [A395/406]. Possibly still extant as [R66Y].

S-4B 1917 = 100hp Gnôme; span: 27'0" length: 20'3" v: 95. POP: 3 civil, 97 for Army [AS4276/4372], 10 for USN [A3235/3244].

Thomas-Morse S-4C [AS-38739] (USAAC)
Thomas-Morse S-4C as civil racer [NR502]

S-4C 1918 = 80hp Gnôme B-9 or 80hp LeRhône C-9; span: 26'6" length: length: 19'10" v: 95 ceiling: 15,000'. $5,400. POP: 6 civil, 461 for Army [AS38637/38979, AS39882, AS41359/41408, AS44608/44674], 4 with twin floats for USN [A5855/5858]; 50 with Gnôme and 447 with LeRhône.

Thomas-Morse S-4E

S-4E 1918 = 110hp LeRhône; span: (upper) 22'0" (lower) 14'0". Tapered wings, redesigned landing gear. POP: 1 for evaluation as aerobatic trainer, was rejected, and used as a racer Space-Eater with 135hp Aeromarine V-8 (v: 103) (p: Basil Rowe).

Thomas-Morse S-5 [A-762] (USN)

-Morse S-5 1917 = S-4B with two short main floats and a tail float. POP: 6 for USN [A757/762].
Thomas-Morse S-6

-Morse S-6 1919 = 2pOB; 80hp LeRhône; span: 29'0" length: 27'4" v: 105/x/35 ceiling: 19,500'. T-M's only production with tandem cockpits and dual controls. POP: 1 sportplane [C98], used in racing competitions; placed second in 1919 Nationals.
-Morse S-7 1919 = 2pOB; 80hp LeRhône; span: 32'0" v: 90/x/35. W T Thomas, Agnew Larsen, Raymond Dowd. Side-by-side cockpit, advertised thusly as "The Sociable Seater." POP: 1.
Thomas-Morse S-9 (Consolidated)

-Morse S-9 1923 = Army trainer. 2pOB; 200hp Lawrance J-1 (one source says Wright J-3); v: 140/x/40. Widened side-by-side cockpit in an all-metal corrugated fuselage, wings from S-6 and tail from S-4C. POP: 1. During Army flight tests at Kelly Field TX, it showed structural problems and the pilot bailed out; however, the plane reportedly glided to an "almost-successful landing" except for losing its wings when it went between two trees. It was sent back to T-M, but never repaired.
-Morse SH-4 1915 = USN float version of Thomas T-2 with single main pontoon and wingtip floats, larger tail, three-bay wings; various engines (Curtiss OX-5, Hisso A, et al); span: 44'0" length: 29'9" load: 897# v: 83. $7,575; POP: 15 [A134/136, A395/406]. The first design for Thomas-Morse by B D Thomas incorporated much of the same look as his Curtiss J.
Thomas-Morse TM-22 as R-5 racer (Drina Welch Abel coll)

-Morse TM-22 SEE MB-7.
-Morse TM-23 1923 = 1pOB; 440hp Curtiss D-12; span: 19'6" (later 23'0") length: 16'8" (later 17'6") load: 788# v: 167/125/80 range: 280 ceiling: 20,150'. All-metal, corrugated-skin pursuit design with inherent design and cooling problems despite several modifications. POP: 1 for Army evaluation at McCook Field, rejected for its flight characteristics and high landing speed, dismantled in 1926.
Thomas-Morse TM-24

-Morse TM-24 1924 = 2pOB; 440hp Curtiss D-12; span: (upper) 25'0" (lower) 30'1" length: 20'5" load: 1500# v: 143/114/63. 63" chord upper wing, 52" chord lower wing; bridge-truss struts; biplane tail. All-metal, corrugated-skin pursuit was an improvement over TM-23, but still had enough design problems to result in rejection by the Army after McCook Field tests [P-380]. POP: 1, dismantled and stored away.