REVISED: 5/2/09


Sarter Tiffany, location unknown.

  Tiffany Sport (Drina Welch Abel coll)

Sport 1924 = 1pOB; 18.5hp Harley-Davidson. Due to very short wingspan and low power, it had some difficulties taking off. Entered in 1925 Dayton Lightplane Air Race without much success.


Tiger Aircraft LLC, Martinsburg WV (Taiwan-US investment group).

2000 = Continuance of Grumman-American planes in IFR versions for $215,000.

Tijuana SEE Waterhouse

Tilbury, Tilbury-Fundy

Owen R Tilbury, Normal IL. Tilbury & (Clarence) Fundy, Bloomington IL or IN.

S-10 Skywayman 1929 = 1pOM; 32hp Ford, and Henderson. [6N=827E] c/n TW-1313.

  Tilbury SF-1 [R12931] (Frank Rezich coll)

SF-1 Flash 1932 = 1pClwM; 45hp Church-Henderson; span: 14'8" (later increased to 17'10") length: 11'10" (later 12'5"). Owen Tilbury. Racer for the Nationals [R12931] (p: Art Carnahan). Stored in a barn in 1935, recovered in 1975 and restored by the Bloomington (IL) EAA Chapter. On exhibit at McLean County Museum of History in Bloomington.


Timm-Aetna SEE Aetna

Timson SEE Pigeon


George W "Billy" Tipton, Old Richards Airport, Kansas City MO.

19?? = OX-5 biplane, possible conversion of military surplus. [5328] c/n 1.

  Tipton 90-2 [X16468]

90-2, W-7200X 1932 = 2pChwM; 90hp Warner Scarab; span: 30'0" length: 19'0". G W Tipton, William Ostoff. Looked very much like a Fairchild 24W with tandem seating; redesignated W-7200X in 1936 [X16468]. Constructed by Walter Bury and Earl C Reed at Raytown MO.


Titan Aircraft, Geneva OH.

Tornado 2000 = Home-built. No data.


TM Aircraft (W Terry Miller), Furlong PA.

TM-5, -5A 1980 = 2pClwM, 65hp Continental A65; span: 25'0" length: 18'3" load: 595# v: 128/110/52 range: 340. [N1053Y].

TM-5B 1981 = 2pClwM; 100hp Continental; load: 574# v: 151/120/52 range: 270. Aerobatic home-built.


Edgar B Todd, Douglas WY. 1929: Pueblo CO.

  Todd in construction (Aviation via Joe Martin)

1924 = 1pOmwM; 28hp Lawrance A-3; span: 24'0" length: 15'2" range: 300. Built by Todd while attending high school at Midwest WY; the propeller was hand-made in the school's carpentry shop. Dubbed Goodship Midwest aka Midwest Light Plane.

  Todd-Alexander Racer [R12E]

Cirrus Special aka Todd-Alexander Racer 1930 = 1pOlwM; 100hp Chevrolet D-333 (replaced by 110hp Cirrus for racing); v: 165. Flew in 1930 Cirrus Derby, but was forced out with motor trouble [R12E] (p: E B Todd). What the name Alexander implies in unclear, but it might be Alexander Aircraft Co in that there is reference to Todd modifying his ship for racing in Pueblo, which is not far from the Alexander factory, and there could have been assistance on that company's part or by Al Mooney, Alexander's designer, with whom Todd later founded Mooney Aircraft Co.

Light Express 1927 = 1-2pOhwM; 90hp Curtiss OX-5; span: 40'0" length: 22'4" load: 330# v: 120/110/55 range: 700. Parasol, three-section, Clark-Y wing; baggage compartment convertible into a passenger seat. POP: 1.

Sport Trainer 1933 = 2pOM; 65hp Velie. [12574] c/n 5.


Edward Todd, Madison WI.

Special 1963 = 2pCmwM; 125hp Lycoming O-290G; span: 22'0" length: 19'6" load: 621# v: 170/160/60 range: 805; ff: 6/x/63. Built first as a 2pChwM Wittman Tailwind, then rebuilt with the wings lowered and the engine raised. [N11Q].


(Peter) Tomalesky Aviation, Umatilla FL.

TC-1 1984 = 2pOB; 260hp. [N2036T].

TF-1 Tomcat 1973 = 2pOB; 160hp Lycoming IO-320-B1A; span: 24'0" length: 18'6" load: 571# v: 160/110/55; ff: 11/x/73. Fully aerobatic. [N28T].


Oliver Topliff, Springfield IL.

Quail, Model A 1936 = 1pO-CM; 15hp Saxon. Ultralight. [14834].


1927: (Thomas) Towle Marine Aircraft Co (pres: George M Holley), Detroit MI. 1928: Towle Aircraft Co. 1933: Ended operations for other endeavors.

TA-1 1930 = First production version of WC with 150hp Comet [X5328].

TA-2 1930 = 240hp Wright Whirlwind J-6 on a faired housing and wing struts omitted; span: 56'0" length: 42'0" load: 2257# v: 120/100/55 range: 500. POP: 1 [NX491H].

  Towle TA-3 [X495M] (Eric Blocher coll)

TA-3 1930 (2-291) = 8p with two 225hp Packard DR-980 diesel on open frames. POP: 1 [X495M].

  Towle WC [X7956] (Skyway via Richard S Allen)

WC Amphibion 1928 = 6pChwMAm; two faired-pylon-mounted 150hp Comet; span: 52'0" length: 35'0" (?>33'0") load: 11,670# v: 115/95/45 range: 350. $25,000. Tom Towle (ex-Ford Aviation). Built for businessman H G McCarroll and USN Lt George Pond by a group of Detroit engineers under the direction of Towle. All-metal wing design (Towle F-2) essentially eliminated ribs and spars with its unique, internal zig-zag pattern of corrugated aluminum as a framework; covering also was corrugated sheet aluminum. Wings were strut-braced. POP: 1 prototype [X7956].


Location unknown.

Thunderbolt 19?? = 1pClwM; 220hp Continental. Aerobatic craft based on Culver Dart design.


1948: K R Townsend, Tulsa OK. c.1956: Gid Townsend, Ocala FL.

  Townsend Thunderbird [N749T] (magazine clips)

Thunderbird c.1956 = 1pClwM; 245hp Jacobs R-755-9; span: 27'5" length: 21'3" v: 220/152/75 range: 200. Empty wt: 1800#. [N749T]. SEE sidebar for recent info.

  Townsend Special [NX64573] (WASM coll)

Townsend A-1 Special aka Loose-Siem Special 1948 = 1pClwM; 85hp Continental C-85. Goodyear-class racer [NX64573] (p: Harold Neumann, Warren Siem), rebuilt and reregistered from 1935 Loose Racer. Competed in 1948 as Townsend Special, reportedly modified as 2p with 245hp Jacobs [N794T] (SEE above).


Trainair Mfg Co, 1610 Sutter St, San Francisco CA.

Arab Junior 1930 = Unknown type with Velie. [X344W] c/n 1-L. Plane apparently never completed, reg cancelled in 1931.

Trainer SEE Cloquet


1946: Transcendental Aircraft Corp (fdrs: Mario A Guerrieri, Robert Lichten, former Piaseski personnel), Glen Riddle PA and New Castle DE. 1952: Sold interests to William E Cobey. c.1957: Holdings acquired by short-lived Helicopter Div, Republic Avn Corp, Farmingdale NY.

  Transcendental 1-G (AIAA)

1-G 1954 = 1pC rotorcraft; 160hp Lycoming GO-290-A; span (excluding rotors): 21'0" rotor: 17'0" length: 26'0" load: 300# v: 160/115/x; ff (as helo): 7/6/54. Fixed wing with two three-blade, counter-rotating props at the wingtips; max rotor speed: 633rpm. Lichten left the company in 1948, and Guerrieri sold to Cobey in 1952, who continued development and testing for Kellett Corp, with partial funding by USAF, through 1954. After more than 100 flights, 1-G crashed in testing 7/20/55, but the pilot escaped with minor injuries, ignoring published reports of his death.

  Transcendental 2 [N546A] (NASA)

2 1956 = 2pOhwM convertiplane, derived from 1-G; 250hp Lycoming O-435-23; span: 22'9" length: 22'1" rotor dia: 18'0" load: 670#. The first tilt-rotor aircraft to successfully explore the conversion mode of flight [N546A].

Lichten had earlier worked for pioneer helicopter designers Dr Wynn Laurence LePage and Haviland Hull Platt, who initiated the study of a large tilt-rotor aircraft, an outgrowth of their XR-1 lateral twin-rotor helicopter. Transcendental built the small tilt-rotor research model 1-G, which crashed due to mechanical failure on 7/20/55, before accomplishing full conversion from helicopter to airplane mode. Prior to that, Lichten had moved to the Bell Helicopter Co seeking support of a major rotorcraft manufacturer in developing the tilt-rotor aircraft. He led the team that got Army and Air Force funding for the development of the XV-3. A Kellett Aircraft Co vibrations expert, William E Cobey, bought out Guerrieri and constructed the model 2, but continued funding could not be obtained—the government was by then backing the Bell XV-3—and the company ended operations in 1957. (— Marty Maisel)

Trans-Florida, Cavalier

Trans-Florida Aviation Inc (pres: David Lindsay), Sarasota FL. 1967: Cavalier Aircraft Corp.

Executive Mustang aka Cavalier 1957 = 2p rebuild and conversion of surplus North American P-51D into a personal transport with plush, soundproofed cockpit, IFR electronics, baggage compartments in former gun bays, 402-gal fuel tanks, zero-time majored 1500hp Packard-Merlin V-1650-7; v: 457/300/97 range: 2000+ ceiling: 40,000'. $32,500 less radio; POP: 19 reportedly under way by the end of 1959 [44-11558=N6175C, -72844=N5076K, -73027, -73260=N5075K, -73411=N550D, -73584=N51Q, -73656=N5073K, -73843=N351D, -74427, -74441, -74453, -74458/74459, -74469=N7723C, -74831, -74854, -84658=N7724C, 45-11381=N5471V, -11489=N5421V].

Cavalier 750 1959 = No tip tanks.

Cavalier 1200 1960 = As 750, with two additional 45-gal internal wing tanks.

Cavalier 1500 1960 = As 750, with two additional 63-gal internal wing tanks.

Cavalier 2000 1967 = 110-gal tip tanks.

Cavalier 2500 196? = As 2000, with two additional 63-gal internal wing tanks.

Cavalier Mustang II 1967 = F-51D modified for counter-insurgency duties; 1760hp RR Merlin 620. POP: 2.

Turbo Mustang III 1968 or 1971 = Prototypical COIN design for production by Piper Co as PA-48 Enforcer (qv).


1946: Transland Co, Torrance CA. 1957: Transland Aircraft, div of Hi-Shear Rivet Tool Co (pres: George S Wing).

AG-2 1956 (4A20) = 1pClwM agricultural sprayer and firefighter; 450hp P&W Wasp Jr or 600hp P&W R-1340; span: 42'0" length: 28'5" load: 3000# v: 142/131/56 ceiling: 15,200'. Evolved from Texas A&M's Texas Ag-1. $28,500 basic flight equipped; POP: 2 prototypes, one of which went to Uruguay.

HU-16B 19?? (A2GL) = Modified Grumman HU-16.


Herbert Trautman, no location.

Road Air 1979 = Flying automobile, a lifting-body concept powered by a Continental C-85 pusher, reportedly did get off the ground briefly to an estimated altitude of three feet, but it was unstable and never asked to fly again. Last heard to be in the Kermit Weeks collection.

Travel Air

SEE ALSO Curtiss-Wright-Travel Air


Walter L Treadwell, Walnut Creek CA.

  Treadwell Alley Cat [N434AC] (William T Larkins)

Alley Cat 1999 = Agplane? 1pClwM; Continental O-200. POP: 1 [N434AC] s/n 004.


1955: Trecker Aircraft Corp (pres: F J Trecker), Milwaukee WI. Former Royal Aircraft Corp, subsidiary of Kearney & Trecker Corp. Trecker Aircraft Corp dissolved in 1964.

Gull 136 1958 = Italian Piaggio P-136 gull-winged personal transport assembled by Trecker. 4pChwMAm; two 320hp Lycoming GSO-480A pushers; span: 44'5" length: 35'7" v: 208/184/82 range: 800.


Alfred Trefethen, Lomita CA.

  Trefethen Sport-Aire [N3113G] (clip: Flying)

Sport-Aire II aka TT-1 1961 = 2pClwM; 125hp Lycoming; span: 26'5" length: 21'9" load: 475# v: 142/128/62 range: 400 ceiling: 13,000'. George Stark, as Salvay-Stark Skyhopper. Prototype TT-1 [N3113G], with 90hp Continental, built by Al Trefethen and Art Thistle; ff: 11/9/59. Tricycle gear. Marketed plans for home-builders.

TRW Special 1952 = 1pClwM; 85hp Continental C-85. POP: 1 midget racer [N2948] built partially from PAR Special. Disassembled, with wings, aft fuselage and tail going into Tom Trefethen's 1968 Mace-Trefethen seaplane (qv).


Edward Y Treffinger, Santa Monica CA.

T-1-HD 1938 = 2pOB; 27hp Harley-Davidson. POP: 1 [N15777].


1924: (Frank, Fred, George, Henry & Joe) Trella Aircraft, 1269 E Grand Blvd, Detroit MI. 1947: Trella Brothers.

Speedster T-17 1929 = 2pOB; 60hp LeBlond 5D or 55hp Velie M-5; span: 27'6" length: 19'8" (?>19'2") load: 450# v (est): 110/98/36 range: 400. $2,725.

T-19 19?? = "R-266" engine; no other data for [13579] c/n 119.

T-100 1924 = 1pOB; 30hp Ford T conversion. Frank Trella. Never flown because of insufficient take-off power, but used extensively for taxiing instruction.

  Trella T-101 [X6775] (Frank Trella coll)

T-101 (Speedster) 1926 = 2pOB; 80hp Anzani. POP: 1 [X6775].

  Trella T-102 [10509] (Frank Trella coll)

T-102 1928 = 2pOB; 65hp Velie M-5. Improved T-101. POP: 1 [10509] c/n T-18.

T-103 1930 = 2pOB; 90hp Lambert. POP: 1.

T-104 -105 1932 = Identical to T-10 except for minor improvements; destroyed in crash on test flight. POP: 1. Work on 2p ChwM T-105 was begun in 1935, but never finished because of lack of financing and the plane was eventually dismantled.

  Trella T-106 [N450C] (Frank Trella coll)

T-106, -107 1949 = 2pChwM; 85hp Continental C-85-12J pusher; span: 34'0" length: 21'9" load: 470# v: 112/102/42 range: 400; ff: 9/x/49 (p: Paul Holst). All metal; twin tails on booms. POP: 1 [N450C]. A highly-modified 5p rg twin version in 1954 as T-107 never went past the mock-up stage because of funding problems.


1926: Pacific Aircraft Co (fdr: William D Tremaine), Brea CA.

  Tremaine Humming Bird Dole Race entry (Skyways)

Humming Bird aka Tremaine-Thaheld, Pacific J-30 1927 = 3pClwM; 225hp Wright J-5; span: 48'0" length: 29'0". Frederic Thaheld. POP: 3, all based on the German Junkers design, of which one was Dole Race entry Spirit of John Rodgers (p: George A Covell, Richard Waggener), registry unknown (and much sought-after by aviation historians—Berinati suspects it is [1239]). It had 645-gallon fuel tanks, and was originally designed for a non-stop Japan flight attempt. Lack of forward visibility was because its covered forward fuselage required installation of a periscope in the manner of Lindbergh's Spirit of St Louis. Crashed and was destroyed in fog at Point Loma enroute to Oakland from San Diego. Another, also named Humming Bird, was a 1927 2pOlwM sport plane with 120hp Super Rhône (v: 130/105/35), the third with a Hisso as Pacific J-30; [X87N] c/n 34. Stretching this even further, the bird was applied to a 1924 flivver-type, also designed by Thaheld, built in Tremaine's garage.

WT-2 1928 = Unknown type; McClatchie-Panther engine. Registered to W D Tremaine as [X7771] c/n 33. This one is also noted registered as a "Junker" by Pacific Aircraft Co, but with a Wizard motor.


Intl School of Aeronautics, no location.

1909 = OB. No data in Jane's except that "Messers. Luttgen & Beckert are connected with the design of this machine."


Tridair Helicopters Inc.

Gemini 1991 = 7pCH, twin-engine modification of Bell Textron 206L; two 900hp Allison 250-C20R; rotor: 37'0" length: 52'8" load: 1795-2000# v: 150/133/0 ceiling: 20,000'.


1965: Trident Aircraft Corp (fdrs: Chuck Herbst, Percy Spencer) Vancouver BC.

  Trident TR-1 (

TR-1 Trigull 1966 = Republic Seabee technology extended. Percy Spencer.


Gilbert Trimmer, New York NY.

Trimcraft 1938 = 2pOhwMAm; 50hp Salmson AD-9; span: 37'0" (?>34'6") length: 18'0" (?>21'0") v: 85/75/x range 180. Parasol wing, all-wood hull, leading edge-mounted motor. [NC1302]. Evolved into Commonwealth Trimmer.


Tri-R Technologies, Oxnard CA.

Kis 1991 = 2pClwM; 80hp Limbach L2000; span: 23'0" length: 22'0" load: 520# v: 150/135/55 range: 600. Rich Trickel. Kis = "Keep It Simple." Composite construction.

TR-4 Cruiser 1994 = 4pClwM; 180hp Lycoming O-360; span: 29'0" length: 25'0" load: 1200# v: 190/175/55 range: 850.


Triton Aircraft Co, Sausalito CA.

Water Sprite 1930 = 4pCBFb; 165hp Comet 7-E; span: 34'0" length: 23'3" load: 890# v: 114/90/55 range: 360. Phil Salzman. [NX24E].


Larry G Trotter, Auburn WA.

  Trotter WSA-1 [N3417] (Friedrich Huggler)

WSA-1 1987 = 1pOB; 16hp one-cyl 2-cycle shipboard utility engine. Specs unknown, it staked a claim of being the "World's Smallest Airplane," althought there is no knowledge or proof that it ever actually flew, despite its FAA registration. [N3417] c/n 001, donated to Pearson Air Museum (WA).

On the first flight attempt, at about rotation speed the propeller threw a blade, which resulted in some extremely violent vibration that did some damage to the front cowling and motor mount and was bad enough to shake the hands off the altimeter. After I repaired it and replaced the metal prop with a wooden one, I never got around to trying again. (— Larry Trotter, letter 10/19/00)


Troy Air Service (George B Cluett II, Guy A Ham, Edward Pattison), Falmouth Airport, Hatchville MA (also seen as Cape Aircraft Co). 1940: Ended operations. 1941: Reorganized as Cluett Aircraft Co.

A 1938 = 2pOB; LeBlond, 125hp Warner Scarab (3/1/39), Menasco C-4 (8/15/39). Nelson M Jones. Dual-control trainer. POP: 1 [NX/NC2619] c/n 102. Reg cancelled in 1948. The above data is the result of persistent research by J M Jarratt to firm up this mystery plane. Original found data (as Cape NMJ-1A Trainer appearing on 1940 records) included 130hp Aeromarine 2-A; span: 28'5" length: 22'8" v: 130/118/45, and mentioned that the final modification had canopied cockpits. The design, with 130hp Franklin, was advanced by Cluett Co, but not completed because of outbreak of WW2.


Kermit R Troyer, Comstock MI.

VX 1940 = 1pOmwM; Heath; span: 23'9" length: 15'9". Empty wt: 306#. [18471].


Roy True, Monroe WI.

Sport 1953 = 1pCmwM; 85hp Continental C-85; span: 15'6" length: 17'6" load: 180# v: 210/165/65 range: 450. Conceived as a racer Slow Poke, but was used only for sport flying [N7M].


(H D) Truman Aeroplane Co, San Francisco CA..

c.1912 = No data or photo found.


John R Truman, Bandon OR.

33 1932 = 1pOM; 35hp Cleone; no specs found. POP: 1 [12730]. Reg canceled by CAA 3/15/36 on lapse of license.


Frederick L Trump, Newcastle DE.

  Trump (clip from unknown magazine)

Model 1 1927 = 1pOB; 28hp Lawrance (later with Salmson); span: 19'0". Gross wt: 300#. Photo shows that this was really a Lincoln Sport kitplane renamed by its builder an engineering student at Univ of Minnesota [6635]. Test flight reportedly by Charles "Speed" Holman.



No info, only a found photo of an strange concept.


Tucker Aviation Co, Detroit MI.

  Tucker XP-57 three-view drawing (USAF Museum)

XP-57 1940 - 1pClwM rg; 720hp Miller L-510; span: 28'0" length: 26'7" load: 1480# v (est): 308/265/x range (est): 960 ceiling (est): 26,000'. An AAF development contract was awarded to produce a prototype lightweight fighter, but financial difficulties befell the new company, and the contract lapsed in 1941 without any production. Much like Bell P-39 in concept, it had its motor in mid-fuselage and a 20mm cannon in the propshaft. It is included here only because of its historic position in the AAF's line of "P-jobs."


1964: L G Tucker, Pittsburgh PA. c.1980: Greeneville TN.

Le Petit Cygne 1964 = 1pO/ClwM; 36hp Aeronca E-113, later 40hp Continental; span: 28'0" v: 110/x/40. Empty wt: 505#. [N1295V].

Pamela 1981 = 1pClwM; 125hp Lycoming O-290; span: 29'0" length: 20'0" load: 362# v: 180/170/55 range: 300. [N3988].


(M C) Tunison Aircraft, Santa Ana CA. 1929: Sold to Pacific Air Industries Inc.

  Tunison Scout [X425]

Scout Junior 1929 = 3pClwM; 300hp Wright-Hisso H-3; span: 36'0" length: 29'0" (?>31'0") load: 1391# v: 190/165/45 range: 600; ff: 12/21/28 (p: Jimmie Angel). M C Tunison, influenced by the French Antoinette Monobloc design. Wide-chord, sparless, molded-plywood wings with only four ribs on each side, bias ailerons; monocoque fuselage with a "vista dome" canopy; deep, faired gear with built-in landing lights. Won a $2,300 prize for design. POP: 1 [X247E], re-registered [X425], then refitted with 600hp Miller and re-re-registered as [X13795]. Plans by financial group, Pacific Air Industries, to produce three models of the plane with 150-480hp motor options never materialized. Seen later as Zion Tunison Scout. SEE ALSO Scout.

Aug 1978 Wings has pictures of the Scout, one with [X247E] on the fin and one with [X425]. I have proof that [425] was c/n MC-1, and V J Berinati says that [X247E] was c/n MC-1 (with no reference), and that it was first. [X13795] is the Zion Tunison Scout c/n 1, according to the 1936 register: "Community of Zion, Elsinore CA; Zion Tunison Scout; 3PCLM; #1 '34; Miller 600hp or 800hp." This is probably old faithful [425] rebuilt, but I can't give any watertight proof. But how about this? In 2/9/29, Air Transportation [425] is listed as a Junkers! "Scout Airplane Sales Co, Los Angeles CA. Long wing Junkers MC1 - Hispano-Suiza 3." Tunison Scout might have been a heavily rebuilt Junkers-Larsen JL-6. (— Lennart Johnsson)

Turbine Design

Turbine Design, DeLand FL.

  Turbine Design Malibu/Mirage Maxima (Turbine Design)

TD-2 19?? - No data. Photo possibly erroneously identified as TD-2.


(Lawrence) Brown Aircraft Co, Montebello CA.

Special (Pesco Special) 1937 = 1pClwM; 1830hp P&W Twin Wasp; span: 25'0" length: 23'0" v: 330/x/87. Howard Barlow, Roscoe Turner; aka Turner-Laird because of its Laird-built wings, originally 22'0". POP: 1 racer [R263Y] Ring-Free Meteor, renamed by Turner in 1938 for sponsor Pesco Pump Co; won 1938 and 1939 Thompson Trophies.


1960: M L Turner, Oklahoma City OK. 1961: (Eugene L) Turner Aircraft, Fort Worth TX. 1982: Arlington TX.

40A, T-40, T-77 Ophelia Bumps 1961 = 1pClwM; 85hp Continental C-85; span: 22'3" length: 19'5" load: 325# v: 160/140/48 range: 468 ceiling: 14,500'; ff: 4/3/61. Folding wings for storage in a single-car garage. Wood construction project was awarded EAA Design Award in 1961; marketed plans to home-builders. T-40A was 2p version with 24'11" wing. A Super T-40A with a 125hp motor appeared in 1972, and 1981 saw the entry of T-40C, or T-77, with a 150hp Lycoming.


1937: Management & Research Inc, New York NY. c.1939: Tuscar Metals Co Inc.

  Tuscar H-70 [NX20399]
  Tuscar H-71 [NX20399]
  Tuscar H-71 [NX20399] (Frank Rezich coll)

H-70, -71 1937 = 2pClwM; 95hp Menasco B-4 pusher. Thomas Hoff, derivative of Stearman-Hammond Y. Tailless (except for wingtip rudders), flying-wing design with rudders mounted at the trailing edge and trailing-edge flap-type controllers. POP: 1 [NX20399], originally built by Management & Research under a DoC program contract for lightplane development, it did fly, although difficult to turn, but crashed in testing 1/27/38. Rebuilt by Tuscar as H-71 and flown at Floyd Bennett Field for about 60 hours before crashing to finality in Aug 1945.


1924 (Blaine M) Tuxhorn Flying School, Mid-Continent Air Transport (origin of Ozark Airlines), Kansas City KS. 1929: Tuxhorn & Son Flying School.

Air Liner 1925 = 7pO/CB; 400hp Liberty 12. Oversized, steerable tailwheel; pilot and one passenger in open cockpit behind cabin. POP: 1, used as a carrier between Omaha NB and Little Rock AR.

  Tuxhorn Lark (Aviation via Joe Martin)

Lark 1924 = 2pOhwM; 60hp Wright-Gale L-4 (later 55hp Velie M-5); span: 28'0" length: 19'0" load: 430# v: 95/x/32 range c.225. L Dewey Bonbrake redesign, to what extent is uncertain. POP: 1 rebuild of Bahl Lark to improve flight characteristics. Became Bonbrake Parasol in 1928, and basic design evolved into Inland Sport. Ref: Letter to editor from Bonbrake, 12/15/24.

20th Century

1929: 20th Century Aircraft Corp (pres; Fred Arnoldi), Ravena NY.

Sky King also noted as Sport 1930 = 2pOhwM; 100hp Kinner; span: 39'0" length: 24'0" load: 800# v: 125/x/35. Aviation described it as a "two-place tandem monoplane ... a fuselage reminding one of the Cairns ... monocoque construction and roughly triangular in cross-section, the vertex, however, being toward the ground ... priced at $4500". POP: 1 [318V]. Very strong indication that this is a repeat or an evolution of Blasovsky Sport, a previous design of Arnoldi.

The company was set up by the Ravena Board of Trade in mid-Sep 1929 and Arnoldi, who left Curtiss Co, appointed to head it. Intention was to build three types to be known as "Sky Kings," as above. The first was shipped to NYC for display at the American Legion Aviation Show in Feb 1930, a second ship was partially completed and a third started. Then a brief article in a local newspaper on 1/2/31 reported that the factory closed and moved to Amsterdam. (— John M Jarratt 1/2/02)

Twin Commander SEE Gulfstream


H la V Twining, Los Angeles CA.

Ornithopter 1910 = No data except for having "two lifting screws." Twining was then-president of Aero Club of California. Classified by Jane's as a helicopter, despite its model name.


William B Tyler, Detroit MI.

A 1937 = 1pOM; 50hp Ford. [20436].


Joseph E Tyndall, Richmond VA.

Mr Splinters 1962 = 2pCmwM; 108hp Lycoming; span: 22'0" length: 19'6" load: 500# v: 125/115/60 range: 250. Crashed in 1963, killing its designer. POP: 1 [N464T].

"Learn about flying from the mistakes of others. You won't live long enough to make all of them yourself." — anonymous